Mohammad Ali, PhD

Senior Scientist
Department of International Health
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
615 N. Wolfe Street/E5543
Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA


Dr. Ali is a Bangladeshi Citizen, graduated in Economics from Bangladesh in 1978. He started his professional life as a Research Analyst for the Government of Bangladesh. The research involved identifying barriers to agricultural production in Bangladesh. In late 1984, he joined icddr,b in Bangladesh and became involved in health and population data management and analysis, and worked with various research groups coming from different disciplines and from various parts of the world. After completion of a Masters program in Geographic Information Sciences (GIS) at the University Liege, Belgium, he embarked on a PhD program in the same university and completed it in 2000. He conducts geographic researches on various diseases such as cholera, acute lower respiratory infection, shigella, typhoid, and dengue fever. Dr. Ali has been working at the Johns Hopkins University, USA since November 2013. Before joining at Johns Hopkins, he worked at the International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Korea from early 2001 to late 2013. He introduced GIS in vaccine evaluation studies for various research sites. His newest spatial epidemiology studies investigate the effectiveness of cholera vaccines. He is the author or co-author of 148 publications, reviewer of several peer-reviewed journals, Academic Editor of PLoS ONE, and Research Consultant at various organizations.

Research Interest

His research interest includes: Geographic and statistical analyses of clinical trials, health, health interventions, population, human ecology, multilevel analysis, teaching and training on GIS and public health, health interventions, spatial analysis, spatial epidemiology, and human ecology and development and implementation of computer-based (geographic) information systems.

Scientific Activities


• (2008) Award for the best paper presentation in the 2nd International Conference on Health GIS, 14-16 January 2008, Bangkok, Thailand
• (2007) Distinguished Scientist award of the International Vaccine Institute for innovative methodologies and studies of herd effect of oral cholera vaccines
• (1996) PhD Scholarship, Belgian Administration for Development Cooperation
• (1975) Merit Scholarship, Rajshahi University, Bangladesh


1. Elemuwa C, Kutalek R, Ali M, Mworozi E, Maurer W, Rath B. The Vienna Vaccine Safety initiative. Global lessons from Nigerias Ebola control strategy (Editorial). Expert Review of Vaccines. 2015; 24: 1-4. doi: 10.1586/14760584.2015.1064313
2. Kanungo S, Desai SN, Saha J, et al . An open label non-inferiority trial assessing vibriocidal response of a killed bivalent oral cholera vaccine regimen following a five year interval in Kolkata, India. PLoS Neg Trop Dis. 2015; 9(5): e0003809. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003809
3. Wierzba TW, Kar SK, Mogasale VV, et al. Effectiveness of an oral cholera vaccine campaign to prevent clinically-significant cholera in Odisha State, India. Vaccine. 2015; 33(21): 2463-2469. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.03.073
4. Chowdhury F, Khan IA, Patel S, et al. Diarrheal illness and healthcare seeking behavior in the low socioeconomic communities in Dhaka, Bangladesh. PLoS ONE. 2015; 10(6): e0130105. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0130105
5. Ali M, Nelson AR, Lopez AL, Sack DA. Updated global burden of cholera in endemic countries. PLoS Neg Trop Dis. 2015; 9(6): e0003832. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003832
6. Ali M, Rath B, Thiem VD.. Vaccine safety monitoring systems in developing countries: an example of the Vietnam model. Current Drug Safety. 2015; 10: 60-67. doi: 10.2174/157488631001150407110644
7. Kanungo S, Desai SN, Nandy RK, et al. Flexibility of oral cholera vaccine dosing – A randomized controlled trial measuring immune responses following alternative vaccination schedules. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015; 9(3): e0003574. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003574
8. Lopez AL, Macasaet L, Ylade M, Tayag EA, Ali M. Epidemiology of cholera in the Philippines. PLoS Neg Trop Dis. 2015; 9(1): e3440. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003440
9. Heydrich PC, Hudgens MG, Halloran ME, Clemens JD, Ali M, Emch ME. Assessing effects of cholera vaccination in the presence of interference. Biometrics. 2014; 70(3): 731-741. doi: 10.1111/biom.12184
10. Martin S, Lopez AL, Bellos A, et al. Post-licensure deployment of oral cholera vaccines: a systematic review. Bull World Health Organ. 2014; 92(12): 881-893. doi: 10.2471/BLT.14.139949
11. Anh DD, Lopez Al, Tran HTM, et al. Oral cholera vaccine development and use in Vietnam. PLoS Medicine. 2014; 11(9): e1001712. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001712
12. Ali M, Sack DA. Commentary: Achieving a polio free world. BMC Medicine. 2014; 12: 116. doi: 10.1186/s12916-014-0116-3
13. Kar SK, Sah B, Patnaik B, et al. Mass vaccination with a new, low-cost oral cholera vaccine using public health infrastructure in India: the Odisha model. PLoS NTD. 2014; 8(2): e2629. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002629
14. Ochiai RL, Khan MI, Soofi SB, et al. Immune response to Vi polysaccharide typhoid vaccine in children 2 to 16 years old in Karachi, Pakistan and Kolkata, India. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 2014; 21(5): 661-666. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00791-13
15. Kanungo S, Lopez AL, Ali M, et al. Vibriocidal responses to a bivalent killed whole-cell oral cholera vaccine in a Phase III trial in Kolkata, India. PLOS ONE. 2014; 9(5): e96499. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096499
16. Kim DR, Ali M, Thiem VD, Wierzba TF. Socio-ecological risk factors for prime-age adult death in Vietnam. PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(2): e89780. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089780
17. Deen J, Ali M, Sack D. Methods to assess the impact of mass oral cholera vaccination campaigns under real field conditions. PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(2): e88139. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088139
18. Bhattacharya SK, Sur D, Ali M, et al. 5 year efficacy of a bivalent killed whole-cell oral cholera vaccine in Kolkata, India: a cluster-randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013; 13: 1050-1056. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70273-1
19. Kochhar S, Rath B, Seeber L, Rundblad G, Khamesipour A, Ali M. The Vienna Vaccine Safety Initiative. Introducing new vaccines in developing countries. Expert Review Vaccine. 2013; 12(12): 1465-1478. doi: 10.1586/14760584.2013.855612
20. Khan IA, Saha A, Chowdhury F, et al. Coverage and cost of a large oral cholera vaccination program in a high-risk cholera endemic urban population in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Vaccine. 2013; 31(51): 6058-6064. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.10.021
21. You YA, Ali M, Kanungo S, et al. Risk map of cholera infection for vaccine deployment: the Eastern Kolkata case. PLoS ONE. 2013; 8(3): e71173. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071173
22. Ali M, Sur D, You YA, et al. Herd protection by a bivalent-killed-whole-cell oral cholera vaccine in the slums of Kolkata, India. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2013; 56(8): 1123-1131. doi: 10.1093/cid/cit009
23. Ali M, Kim DR, Yunus M, Emch M. Time series analysis of cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh during 1988-2001. J health Popul Nutr. 2013; 31(1): 11-19.
24. Rath B, Ali M, Elemuwa C, et al. Vienna Vaccine Safety Initiative, Prioritizing Polio. Expert Rev of Vaccines. 2012; 11(12): 1389-1392. doi: 10.1586/erv.12.128
25. Holt KE, Dutta S, Manna B, et al. High-resolution genotyping of the endemic Salmonella Typhi population during a Vi (typhoid) vaccination trial in Kolkata. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012; 6(1): 1490. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001490
26. Khan MI, Soofi SB, Ochiai RL, et al. Epidemiology, clinical presentation, and patterns of drug resistance of Salmonella Typhi in Karachi, Pakistan. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries. 2012; 6(10): 704-701. doi: 10.3855/jidc.1967
27. Emch M, Root ED , Giebultowicz S, Ali M, Perez-Heydrich C, Yunus M. Integration of spatial and social network analysis in disease transmission studies. Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 2012; 102(5): 1004-1015. doi: 10.1080/00045608.2012.671129
28. Thriemer K, Ley BB, Ame SS, et al. Clinical and epidemiological features of typhoid fever in Pemba, Zanzibar: assessment of the performance of the WHO case definitions. PLoS ONE. 2012; 7(2): e51823. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051823
29. Khatib AM, Ali M, von Seidlein L, et al. Effectiveness of an oral cholera vaccine in Zanzibar: findings from a mass vaccination campaign and observational cohort study. Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2012; 12(11): 837-844. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(12)70196-2
30. Kanungo S, Sur D, Ali M, et al. Clinical, epidemiological, and spatial characteristics of Vibrio parahaemolyticus diarrhea and cholera in the urban slums of Kolkata, India. BMC Public Health. 2012; 12: 830. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-12-830
31. Imran KM, Soofi S, Ochiai RL, et al. Effectiveness of Vi capsular polysaccharide typhoid vaccine among children: a cluster randomized trial in Pakistan. Vaccine. 2012; 30(36): 5389-5395. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.06.015
32. Hashim R, Khatib AM, Enwere G, et al. Safety of the recombinant cholera toxin B subunit, killed whole-cell (rBS-WC) oral cholera vaccine in pregnancy. PLoS Negl Trop Dis . 2012; 6(7): e1743. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001743
33. Rath B, Ali M, Codarini G, et al. Promoting Evidence-based Vaccine Safety Research and Communication-The Vienna Vaccine Safety Initiative. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. 2012; 58(3): 167-169 .doi: 10.1093/tropej/fms022
34. Muehlhans S, Richard G, Ali M, et al. Safety reporting in developing country vaccine clinical trials-A systematic review. Vaccine. 2012; 30(22): 3255-3265. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.02.059
35. Kim DR, Ali M, Sur D, Khatib A, Wierzba TF. Determining optimal neighborhood size for ecological studies using leave-one-out cross validation. International Journal of Health Geographics. 2012; 11(1): 10. doi: 10.1186/1476-072X-11-10
36. Khan MI, Ochiai RL, Soofi SB, et al. Risk factors associated with typhoid fever in children 2-16 years in Karachi, Pakistan. Epidemiology and Infection. 2012; 140(4): 665-672. doi: 10.1017/S0950268811000938
37. Ali M, Lopez AL, You YA, et al. Global burden of cholera. Bull World Health Organ. 2012; 90: 209-218. doi: 10.1590/S0042-96862012000300013
38. Favorov M, Ali M, Tursunbayeva A, et al. Comparative tuberculosis (TB) prevention effectiveness in children of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccines from different sources, Kazakhstan. PLoS ONE. 2012; 7(3): e32567. doi:
39. Thriemer K, Ley B, Ame S, et al. The burden of invasive bacterial infections in Pemba, Zanzibar. PLoS ONE. 2012; 7(2): e30350. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030350
40. Thriemer K, Ley B, Ame SM, et al. Replacing paper data collection forms with electronic data entry in the field: findings from a study of community-acquired bloodstream infections in Pemba, Zanzibar. BMC Research Notes. 2012; 5: 113. doi: 10.1186/1756-0500-5-113
41. Giebultowicz S. Ali M, Yunus M, Emch M. The simultaneous effects of spatial and social networks on cholera transmission. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases. 2011; 2011: 604372. doi: 10.1155/2011/604372
42. Saha A, Chowdhury MI, Khanam F, et al. Vaccine. Safety and immunogenicity study of a killed bivalent (O1 and O139) whole-cell oral cholera vaccine Shanchol, in Bangladeshi adults and children as young as 1 year of age. Vaccine. 2011; 29(46): 8285-8292. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.08.108
43. Sur D, Kanungo S, Sah B, et al. Efficacy of a low-cost, killed whole-cell oral cholera vaccine: results from 3 years of follow up of a cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled trial. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2011; 5(10): e1289. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001289
44. Holt KE, Dutta S, Manna B, et al. High-resolution genotyping of the endemic Salmonella Typhi population during a Vi (Typhoid) vaccination trial in Kolkata. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 1012; 6(1): e1490. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001490
45. Ali M, Sur D, Kim DR, et al. Impact of Vi vaccination on spatial patterns of typhoid fever in the slums of Kolkata, India. Vaccine. 2011; 29: 9051-9056. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.09.027
46. Root ED, Giebultowicz S, Ali M, Yunus M, Emch M. The role of vaccine coverage within social networks in cholera vaccine efficacy. PLoS ONE. 2011; 6(7): e22971. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022971
47. Khan MI, Ochiai RL, von Seidlein L, et al. Non-typhoidal Salmonella rates in febrile children at sites in five Asian countries. Trop Med Int Health. 2010; 15(8): 960-963. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2010.02553.x
48. Ali M, Emch M, Park JK, Yunus M, Clemens J. Natural cholera infection-derived immunity in an endemic setting. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2011; 204: 912-918. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jir416
49. Reyburn R, Kim DR, Emch M, Khatib A, von Seidlein L, Ali M. Climate Variability and the Outbreaks of Cholera in Zanzibar, East Africa: A Time Series Analysis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011; 84(6): 862-869. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0277
50. Clemens J, Shin S, Ali M. New approaches to the assessment of vaccine herd protection in trials conducted before licensure. Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2011; 11(6): 482-487. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(10)70318-2
51. Giebultowicz S, Ali M, Yunus M, Emch M. A comparison of spatial and social clustering of cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh. Health & Place. 2011; 17: 490-497. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2010.12.004
52. Sohel N, Vahter M, Ali M, et al. Spatial patterns of fetal loss and infant death in an arsenic-affected area in Bangladesh. International Journal of Health Geographics. 2010; 9: 53. doi: 10.1186/1476-072X-9-53
53. Ali M, Sur D, Lopez AL, et al. Community participation in two vaccination trials in the slums of Kolkata, India: a multilevel analysis. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition. 2010; 28(5): 450-457.
54. Khan OA, Davenhall W, Ali M, et al. Geographical information systems and tropical medicine. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 2010; 104(4): 303-318. doi: 10.1179/136485910X12743554759867
55. Ali M, Deen JL, Khatib A, et al. Paperless registration during a census and large oral cholera mass vaccination in Zanzibar, East Africa. Bulletin of WHO. 2010; 88: 556-559. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041527
56. Kanungo S, Tsuzuki A, Deen J, et al. Use of verbal autopsy to determine mortality patterns in an urban slum in Kolkata. Bulletin of WHO. 2010; 88: 667-674. doi: 10.2471/BLT.09.073742
57. Emch M, Yunus M, Escamilla V, Feldacker C, Ali M. Local population and regional environmental drivers of cholera in Bangladesh. Environmental Health. 2010; 9: 2. doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-9-2
58. Sur D, Lopez AL, Kanungo S, et al. Efficacy and safety of a modified killed whole-cell oral cholera vaccine in India: an interim analysis of a cluster-randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2009; 374: 1694-1702. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61297-6
59. Sur D, Ochiai RL, Bhattacharya SK, et al. A cluster-randomized effectiveness trial of Vi typhoid vaccine in India. NEJM. 2009; 361: 335-344. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0807521
60. Ali M, Emch M, Yunus M, Clemens J. Modeling spatial heterogeneity of disease risk and evaluation of the impact of vaccination. Vaccine. 2009; 27: 3724-3729. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.03.085
61. Emch M, Ali M, Root ED, Yunus M. Spatial and environmental connectivity analysis in a cholera vaccine trial. Social Science and Medicine. 2009; 68: 631-637. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.11.025
62. Emch M, Feldacker C, Islam MS, Ali M. Seasonality of cholera since 1970: a review of global and regional patterns. International Journal of Health Geographics. 2008; 7: 31. doi: 10.1186/1476-072X-7-31
63. Kim DR, Ali M, Thiem VD, Park JK, von Seidlein L, Clemens JD. Geographic analysis of shigellosis in Vietnam. Health & Place. 2008; 14: 755-767.
64. Ali M, Clemens J. Editorial: Ecological aspects in vaccine trials. Expert Review of Vaccines. 2008; 7(3): 279-281. doi: 10.1586/14760584.7.3.279
65. Emch M, Feldacker C, Yunus M, et al. Local environmental predictors of cholera in Bangladesh and Vietnam. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008; 78(5): 823-832.
66. Ochiai RL, Acosta CJ, Danovaro-Holliday MC, et al. A study of typhoid fever in five Asian countries: disease burden and implications for controls. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2008; 86: 260-268. doi: 10.2471/BLT.06.039818
67. Deen JL, von Seidlein L, Sur D, et al. The high burden of cholera in children: Comparison of incidence from endemic areas in Asia and Africa. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2008; 2(2): e173. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000173
68. Ali M, Emch M, Yunus M, et al. Vaccination of adult women against cholera protects young children in rural Bangladesh. Pediatric Infectious Disease. 2008; 27(1): 33-37. doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e318149dffd
69. Longini IM, Azhar N, Ali M, Yunus M, Shenvi N, Clemens J. Controlling endemic cholera with oral vaccine. PLoS Medicine. 2007; 4(11): e336. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0040336
70. Emch M, Ali M, Yunus M. Risk areas and neighborhood-level risk factors for Shigella dysenteriae 1 and Shigella flexneri. Health & Place. 2008; 14(1): 96-105. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2007.05.004
71. Sur D, Ali M, von Seidlein L, et al. Comparisons of demographic and socioeconomic correlates between high risk areas for typhoid and paratyphoid fever in Kolkata, India. BMC Public Health. 2007; 7: 289. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-289
72. Ali M, Jin Y, Kim DR, et al. Spatial risk for gender-specific adult mortality in southern China. Int J Health Geographics. 2007; 6: 31. doi: 10.1186/1476-072X-6-31
73. Dong B, Galindo CM, Shin E, et al. Optimizing typhoid fever case definitions by combining serological tests in a large population study in Hechi City, China. Epidemiology and Infection. 2007; 135(6): 1014-1020. doi: 10.1017/S0950268806007801
74. Acosta CJ, Galindo CM, Ochiai L, et al. Implementation of good clinical practice guidelines in vaccine trials in developing countries. Vaccine. 2007; 25(15): 2852-2857.
75. SonLa Study Group. Using a fingerprint recognition system in a vaccine trial to avoid misclassification. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2007; 85(1): 64-67. doi: 10.2471/BLT.06.031070
76. Ali M, Thiem VD, Park JK, et al. Geographic analysis of vaccine uptake in a cluster randomized controlled trial in Hue, Vietnam. Health & Place. 2007; 577-578.
77. Emch M, Ali M, Acosta C, Yunus M, Sack DA, Clemens JD. Efficacy calculation in randomized vaccine trial: global or local measures?. Health & Place. 2007; 13(1): 238-248. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2006.01.005
78. Agtini MD, Soeharno R, Lesmana M, et al. The burden of diarrhoea, shigellosis, and cholera in North Jakarta, Indonesia: findings from 24 months surveillance. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2007; 7: 1. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-5-89
79. Kaljee LM, Pham V, Son ND, et al. Trial participation and vaccine desirability for Vi polysaccharide typhoid fever vaccine in Hue City, Viet Nam. Tropical Medicine & International Health. 2007; 12(1): 25-36. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2006.01751.x
80. Agtini MD, Ochiai RL, Soeharno R, et al. Introducing Vi polysaccharide typhoid fever vaccine to primary school children in North Jakarta, Indonesia, via an existent school-based vaccination platform. Public Health. 2006; 120(11): 1081-1087. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2006.06.008
81. Ali M, Goovaerts P, Nazia N, Haq MZ, Yunus M, Emch M. Application of Poisson kriging to the mapping of cholera and dysentery incidence in an endemic area of Bangladesh. Int J Health Geographics. 2006; 5: 45. doi: 10.1186/1476-072X-5-45
82. Thiem VD, Danovaro-Holliday MC, Canh DG, et al. The feasibility of a school-based Vi polysaccharide vaccine mass immunization campaign in Hue City, Central Vietnam: streamlining a typhoid fever preventive strategy. South Asian Journal of Trop Med & Public Health. 2006; 37(3): 1-8.
83. von Seidlein L, Kim DR, Ali M, et al. A prospective, population-based, multi-centre study of Shigella diarrhoea in six Asian countries: disease burden, clinical manifestations and microbiology to PLoS Medicine. 2006; 3(9): 1556-1569. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030353
84. Emch M, Ali M, Park JK, Yunus M, Sack DA, Clemens JD. Relationship between neighborhood-level killed oral cholera vaccine coverage and protective efficacy: evidence for herd immunity. International Journal of Epidemiology. 2006; 35(4): 1044-1050. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyl100
85. Zaman K, Yunus M, Arifeen SE, et al. Prevalence of sputum smear positive tuberculosis in a rural area in Bangladesh. Epidemiology and Infection. 2006; 134(5): 1052-1059. doi: 10.1017/S0950268806006108
86. Na-ubol M, Samosornsuk S, von Seidlein L, et al. Molecular characteristics of Shigella spp. isolated from diarrhea patients of a new industrialized area of Thailand. Epidemiology and Infection. 2006; 134(5): 997-1003. doi: 10.1017/S0950268806005899
87. Ali M, Park JK, von Seidlein L, Acosta CJ, Deen JL, Clemens JD. Organizational aspects and implementation of data systems in large-scale epidemiological studies in less developed countries. BMC Public Health. 2006; 6: 86. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-6-86
88. Sur D, von Seidlein L, Manna B, et al. The malaria and typhoid fever burden in the slums of Kolkata, India: data from a prospective community-based study. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2006; 100(8): 725-733. doi: 10.1016/j.trstmh.2005.10.019
89. Khan MI, Ochiai RL, Hamza HB, et al. Lessons and implications from a mass immunization campaign in squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan: an experience from cluster-randomized double-blinded controlled trial. Trials. 2006; 7: 17. doi: 10.1186/1745-6215-7-17
90. Cavailler P, Lucas M, Perroud V, et al. Feasibility of a mass vaccination campaign using a two-dose oral cholera vaccine in an urban cholera endemic setting in Mozambique. Vaccine. 2006; 24(22): 4890-4895. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.10.006
91. Thiem VD, Deen JL, von Seidlein L, et al. Long-term effectiveness against cholera of oral killed whole-cell vaccine produced in Vietnam. Vaccine. 2006; 24(20): 4297-4303. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.03.008
92. Siddiqui FJ, Bhutto N, von Seidlein L, et al. Consecutive outbreaks of Vibrio cholerae O139 and V. cholerae O1 cholera in a fishing village near Karachi, Pakistan. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2006; 100(5): 476-482. doi: 10.1016/j.trstmh.2005.07.019
93. Khan MI, Sahito SM, Khan MJ, et al. Enhanced disease surveillance through private health care sector cooperation in Karachi, Pakistan: Experience from a vaccine trial. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2006; 84: 72-77. doi: 10.1590/S0042-96862006000100017
94. Ali M, Emch M, von Seidlein L, et al. Herd immunity conferred by killed oral cholera vaccines in Bangladesh: a reanalysis. Lancet. 2005; 366: 44-49. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)66550-6
95. Acosta CJ, Galindo CM, Ali M, et al. A Multi-Country Cluster Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Evaluation to Accelerate the Introduction of Vi Polysaccharide Typhoid Vaccine in Developing Countries in Asia: Rationale and Design. Tropical Medicine & International Health. 2005; 10(12): 1219-1228. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2005.01517.x
96. Chompook P, Samosornsuk S, Jitsanguansuk S, et al. Estimating the burden of shigellosis in Kaengkhoi, Thailand: 36 months of population-based study. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2005; 83(10): 739-746. doi: 10.1590/S0042-96862005001000010
97. Wang XY, Du L, Von Seidlein L, et al. Occurrence of shigellosis in the young and elderly in rural China: results of a 12-month population-based surveillance study. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005; 73(2): 416-422.
98. Ali M, Canh DG, Clemens JD, et al. The Vaccine Safety Datalink Group. The use of a computerised database to monitor vaccine safety in Vietnam. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2005; 83(8): 604-610.
99. Sur D, Deen JL, Manna B, et al. The burden of cholera in the slums of Kolkata, India: Data from a prospective, community-based study. Arch Dis Child. 2005; 90(11): 1175-1181. doi: 10.1136/adc.2004.071316
100. Ochiai RL, Wang XY, von Seidlein L, et al. Salmonella paratyphi A rates, Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2005; 11(11): 1764-1766. doi: 10.3201/eid1111.050168
101. Yang J, Acosta CJ, Si G, et al. A mass vaccination campaign targeting adults and children to prevent typhoid fever in Hechi; Expanding the use of Vi polysaccharide vaccine in Southeast China: A cluster-randomized trial. BMC Public Health. 2005; 5: 49. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-5-49
102. Ali M, Park JK, Thiem VD, Canh DG, Emch M, Clemens JD. Neighborhood size and local geographic variation of health and social determinants. Int J Health Geographics 2005; 4: 12. doi: 10.1186/1476-072X-4-12
103. Ansaruzzaman M, Lucas M, Deen JL, et al. Pandemic serovars (O3:K6 and O4:K68) of Vibrio parahaemolyticus associated with diarrhoea in Mozambique: Spread of the pandemic into the African continent. J Clin Microbiol 2005; 43(6): 2559-2562. doi: 10.1128/JCM.43.6.2559-2562.2005
104. Lucas M, Deen JL, von Seidlein L, et al. High-level effectiveness of a mass oral cholera vaccination in Beira, Mozambique. The New England Journal of Medicine 2005; 352(8): 757-767. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa043323
105. Dong B, Yang J, Tang Z, Yang H, et al. The design and use of cluster randomization method on typhoid Vi vaccine trial. Chinease Journal of Epidemiology. 2005; 26(2): 97-100.
106. Ali M, Rasool S, Park JK, et al. Use of satellite imagery in the construction of a household GIS database for health studies in Karachi, Pakistan. Int J Health Geographics. 2004; 3: 20. doi: 10.1186/1476-072X-3-20
107. Acosta CJ, Galindo CM, Ochiai RL, et al. The role of epidemiology in the introduction of typhoid fever Vi polysaccharide vaccines in Asia. JHPN. 2004; 22(3): 240-245.
108. Yang J, Dong B, Zeng J, et al. Investigation of residents environment and health behavior in Hechi City, Guangxi. Guangxi Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2004; 10(3): 129-131.
109. Yang J, Dong B, Zeng J, et al. Use of GIS on Epidemiologic study. Guangxi Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2004; 10(2): 199-201. doi: 10.1289/ehp.6738
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