Leonard I. Boral, MD, MBA, FCAP, FASCP

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
University of Kentucky Medical Center
Lexington, KY 40536-0298, USA


Dr. Boral is the Director of Blood Bank Services and a Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine and of Anesthesiology at the University of Kentucky Medical Center in Lexington, KY. His educational degrees are a BS from Muhlenberg College, Allentown PA; an MD from the University of Pennsylvania Medical School, Phila. PA; and an MBA from Mississippi College, Clinton, MS.
He is Board Certified in Anatomic and Clinical Pathology as well as Blood Banking Transfusion Medicine and did his specialty training at Syracuse Upstate Medical Center, Syracuse, NY and at NYU/Bellevue Medical Centers, NY, NY. Some of his prior positions have included Chairman of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at Newark Beth Israel Medical Center, Newark NJ and Director of Laboratories at Cook County Medical Center, Chicago, IL.
He is a member of numerous national and regional organizations and committees and currently, he is the College of American Pathologists Mid-Central Regional Commissioner, the Secretary of the Kentucky Society of Pathologists, and the Treasurer of the Kentucky Association of Blood Banks.

Research Interest

His Research interest includes: Transfusion Medicine, Apheresis – Therapeutic and Donor. Blood Donation, Blood Management, Tissue Banking, Coagulation, Point of Care Testing, Laboratory Management, Laboratory Inspection and Accreditation.

Scientific Activities


• Abraham Flexner Master Educator Award in the area of Educational Innovation and Curriculum Development for developing and implementing the first required 1 month blood bank rotation for second year anesthesiology residents (8/15/2011)


• (1975) American Society for Clinical Pathology (951047MF)
• (1975) American Association of Blood Banks (5484)
• (1978) College of American Pathologists (92614)
• (1979) American Society for Apheresis
• (1981) American Society of Hematology (34120229)
• (1990) American Association of Clinical Chemistry (16068)
• (1992) New Jersey Pathology Society
• (2002) Illinois Society of Pathologists
• (2007) Society for the Advancement of Blood Management
• (2007) Kentucky Society of Pathologists
• (2007) Kentucky Association of Blood Banks
• (1992-2014) Academy of Clinical Laboratory Physicians and Scientists
• (2003-2014) Physicians for the Advancement of Transfusion Medicine
• (1995-2011) International Society of Urologic Pathology
• (1994-2004) Association of Directors of Anatomic and Surgical Pathology (ADASP)
• (1998-2008) US and Canadian Academy of Pathology (USCAP)
• (1980-1991) American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics (ASHI)
• (2007- 2011) American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics (ASHI)
• (1990-2008) Clinical Laboratory Management Association (CLMA)
• (1993-2004) International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis
• (1995-2007) Academy of Clinical and Applied Thrombosis and Hemostasis
• (1992-2002) American College of Physician Executives


1. Davey FR, Gordon GB, Boral LI, Gottlieb AJ, Gamma globulin inhibition of fibrin clot formation. Ann. Clin Lab Sci. 1976; 6: 72-77.
2. Boral LI, Henry JB. The type and screen: A safe alternative and supplement in selected surgical procedures. Transfusion. 1977; 17: 165-170. doi: 10.1046/j.1537-2995.1977.17277151923.x
3. Boral LI, Crowley KM, Henry JB. Adult outpatient transfusion clinic in a hospital based blood bank. Transfusion. 1977; 17: 607-610..doi: 10.1046/j.1537-2995.1977.17678075658.x
4. Boral LI, Hill SS, Folland A, Appollon CJ. The type and screen revisited. AJCP. 1979; 71: 578-581.
5. Boral LI, Cornell TA, Danemiller FJ, Stanford W, Hill SS. A guideline for anticipated blood usage during elective surgery. AJCP. 1979; 71: 680-684.
6. Boral LI, Watson M, Waid ME, Muller VH. A mobile therapeutic pheresis program at a regional blood center. Plasma Therapy. 1982; 3: 217-221.
7. Mintz P, Henry JB, Boral LI. The type and antibody screen, in Clinics in Laboratory Medicine 1982; 2: 169-179.
8. Boral LI. Cellular cyropreservation in blood banking. Laboratory Medicine. 1983; 14: 246-251.
9. Dortch SB, Boral LI. Where to get blood for patients with antibodies to high-frequency antigens: problems and solutions. Immunohematology Check Sample.Chicago IL, A American Society of Clinical Pathologists, 1983; 26(6).
10. Smith DE, Boral LI. Organ donation: Part one-The age of transplantation.The Marion County Medical Society Bulletin. 1984; 75: 10-12.
11. Smith DE, Boral LI. Organ donation: Part two-Procurement, storage and clinical application of skin transplantation. The Marion County Medical Society Bulletin.1984; 76: 12-16.
12. Smith DE, Boral LI. The age of transplantation. Council of Community Blood Centers Newsletter. 1984; 7-8.
13. Boral LI. Platelet transfusion therapy. Laboratory Medicine. 1985; 16: 221-227.
14. Boral LI. Waid ME: AIDS Review. The Marion County Medical Society Bulletin. 1985; 76: 18-19.
15. Waid ME, Boral LI. The private physician and the healthy blood donor with a positive test for the HTLV-III antibody. The Marion County Medical Society Bulletin.1985; 76: 18-20.
16. Waid ME, Distler PB, Boral LI. Red cell inventory management. Immunohematology Check Sample, American Society of Clinical Pathologists, Chicago, IL, 1985; 28(4): >
17. Dortch SB, Woodside CH, Boral LI. Limitation of the immediate spin crossmatch when used for detecting ABO compatibility. Transfusion. 25:176-178, 985. .doi: 10.1046/j.1537-2995.1985.25285169217.x
18. Lamberson RD, Boral LI, Dortch SB. Limitations of the crossmatch for detection of incompatibility between AB Red Blood cells and B patient sera. AJCP. 1986; 86: 511-513.
19. Brown SL, Boral LI. Detection of mixed-field agglutination in a surgical patient receiving blood transfusion. Immunohematology Check Sample, American Society of Clinical Pathologists, Chicago, IL. 1986; 29(2).
20. Boral LI, Cheung K,W-K. The HLA antigens in organ grafting. I: Pretransplantation Tests. Laboratory Management. 1986; 24 (3): 61-65.
21. Cheung K, W-K, Boral LI. The HLA antigens in organ grafting. II: Rejection and posttransplantation monitoring. Laboratory management. 1986; 24: 61-65 .
22. Boral LI, Ellis R, Steussy CN, et al. Survey of Blood Transfusion Practices in Indiana. Indiana Medicine. 1986; 79: 621-627.
23. Boral LI, Waid ME, Lee RM, Dougal McR. Impact of ALT testing on blood supplies. Laboratory Management. 1986; 24: 59-60.
24. Chase GJ, Boral LI. Establishing a bone bank: thoughts for a pathologist to consider. Immunohematology Check Sample, American Society of Clinical Pathologists, Chicago, IL, 1986; 29( 3).
25. Sutton GP, Jay A, Lim YS, Noland JE, ,Boral LI. The use of Rh immune globulin: a review. Indiana Medicine 1988; 81: 321-322.
26. Hoffman R, Lu L, Jansen J, et al. Influence of T Lymphocytes on hematopoiesis in a patient with T cell hypoplasia. Am J Hematol. 1988; 27: 118-124.
27. Niranjan S, Boral LI, Casas V, Palekar S. Papillary renal cell carcinoma arising in an allograft kidney. J Urolog Pathol. 1999; 11: 151-160.
28. Boral LI, Cohen MH. The need for rapid HIV testing in the perinatal period. Pathology Today, ASCP. 2005; 3,11.
29. Boral LI. Conference Report, Highlights of the CLMA/ASCP ThinkLab 05 Conference & Exhibition, March 5-8, 2005; Chicago, Illinois. Medscape from WebMD. 6/8/2005. www.medscape.com/viewarticle/503834_1
30. Torke N, Boral L, Nguyen T, Perri, A, Chakrin A. Improvement and operational efficiency through test result autoverification. Clin. Chem. 2005; 12: 2406-2408. doi: 10.1373/clinchem.2005.054395
31. Yogore III MG, Boral LI, Kowal-Vern A, Patel H, Brown S, Latenser BA. Blood Bank services utilization in a burn unit. J. Burn Care Res. 2006; 27: 835-841.
32. Smith B, Wells A, Alexander B, et. al. Curriculum content and evaluation of resident competency in clinical pathology (laboratory medicine): a proposal. Clin. Chem. 2006; 52: 917-949.
33. Boral L, Vern KA, Yogore III M, Patel H, Latenser BA. Transfusions in burn patients with/without co-morbidities. J. Burn Care Res. 2009; 30: 268-273.doi: 10.1097/BCR.0b013e318198a22f
34. Boral LI. Massive Transfusion. Channels (Newsletter of the Kentucky Association of Blood Banks). 2009.
35. Boral LI, MacIvor DC, Ribes JA. http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/739442?src=emailthis.
36. Rebel A, Hassan Z, Boral LI, Lin Y, DiLorenzo A, Schell R. Initial Results of a Structured Rotation in Hematology and Transfusion Medicine for Anesthesiology Residents. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. 2011; 23: 469-474. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinane.2011.01.006
37. Boral LI, Staubach Z, de Leeuw R, MacIvor DC, Kryscio R, Bada,H. Comparison of outcomes of group O vs. non-group O premature neonates receiving group O red cell transfusions. Am J Clin Pathol. 2013; 140: 780-786 .doi: 10.1309/AJCPJX94SPZLQLGG
38. Lough, C, Boral, LI, Ribes J. Is this a hemolytic transfusion reaction?. www.medscape.com/viewarticle/815393_4
39. Boral LI. CAP Expanded Transfusion Medicine Exercise. ETME-B1. Northfield, IL. College of American Pathologists. 2013.
40. Ferraris VA, Boral LI, Cohen AJ, Smyth SS, White GS. Consensus Review of the Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease in People With Hemophilia A and B. Cardiology in Review. 2015; 23: 53-68. doi: 10.1097/CRD.0000000000000045
41. Boral LI, Bernard A, Hjorth T, Davenport D, Zhang D, MacIvor DC. How do I implement a more restrictive transfusion trigger of hemoglobin of 7 g/dL at my hospital? Accepted for publication in Transfusion. 2014. doi: 10.1111/trf.12982
42. Vilchez V, Castellanos AL, Butterfield DA, et al. Effects of dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors in differentiation and expansion of human regulatory T cells. Submiitted to the. Am. J. of Transplantation. 2014.