George F. Babcock, PhD

Department of Surgery
University of Cincinnati
2600 Clifton Ave, Cincinnati
OH 45220, USA


Dr. George F. Babcock received his PhD from the University of Nebraska, College of Medicine, Omaha Nebraska, USA. He is currently Professor of Surgery and Adjunct Professor of Cancer and Cell Biology at the University of Cincinnati, College of Medicine. He is also the Deputy Director for Research at Shriners Hospitals for Children-Cincinnati, OH, USA. He is Chair of the universities Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. He has been on the Editorial Board of Burns, Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research, The Journal of Nutritional Immunology and Biochemical Pharmacology. Additional he has reviewed manuscripts for 26 other journals. He is an active researcher with over 160 peer reviewed papers, 17 book chapters, and the series editor for 4 books and the edition editor for 1. Dr. Babcock is a member of 17 professional societies. He has served on NIH and DOD study sections and is currently the chair of the Military Infectious Diseases Research Program (MIDRP) study section.

Research Interest

His general research interests include Immunology, Microbiology and Inflammation. More specifically the lab is interested in the effects of burns and other trauma on the immune response with an emphasis on the innate immune system. Related to this is an interest in the regulation of apoptosis and adhesion molecules in neutrophils especially after burn trauma. The onset of infections and alterations in wound healing following thermal injury are also being investigated. In addition, area of research include the development of treatments for infected burn wounds especially the use of new anti-microbial agents and the use of biological response modifiers, research into modulation of the immune system bymicrovesicles and by nutritional manipulation of the host following burn injury, an examination of the immunotoxicolgy of agents encountered in the environment and the development and use of flow and image cytometry to measure biological responses.

Scientific Activities


• American Association for Advancement of Science
• American Association for Cancer Research
• American Association for Laboratory Animal Science
• American Association of Immunologists
• American Burn Association
• American Society for Microbiology
• Alpha Epsilon Delta
• International Clinical Cytometry Society
• International Society for Advancement of Cytometry
• International Society for Infections in the Immunocompromised Host
• New York Academy of Sciences
• Public Responsibility in Medicine and Research (PRIM&R)
• Scientists Center for Animal Welfare (SCAW)
• Sigma XI
• Society for Leukocyte Biology
• Transplantation Society


2010-present Member, Research Cyotmetry Core Facility, Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center
2010-present Member, AHC Compliance Committee
2010-present Member Public Responsibility in Medicine and Research (PRIM&R) Conference Planning Committee
2008-present Member ROSE program committee
2008-present Member Ethics committee, Shriners Hospital for Children, Cincinnati Burns Hospital
2004-present Member Institutional Biosafety Committee, Univ. Cincinnati
1997-present Member, Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (ICUC), University of Cincinnati
1984 -present Member Animal Research Committee – Shriners Burns Institute


3-21-12 Public Responsibility in Medicine and Research (PRIM&R) Conference. Invited to present a didactic session entitled “Will your enigma become a stigma? The probities and pitfalls of institutional self-reporting “and present a work shop entitled “Review of protocols: balancing ethics, compliance, and science “
9-19-12 2nd Annual Imaging and Cytometrty Research Day, Ohio River Valley Cytomtery Assocation (ORVCA). Invited to present a round table discussion on “Sample Preparation for Cell Sorting” with Philip Hexley, Ph.D., Cincinnati, OH, USA.
5-19-13 XXVII International Congress of the International Society for the Advancement of Cytometry. Invited to chair workshop entitled “Functional Analy Mitochondria and Transporters “Content and High Throughput Appliations” with Padma Narayanan, Ph.D., San Diego, CA, USA.
9-18-13 3rd 2nd Annual Imaging and Cytometrty Research Day, Ohio River Valley Cytomtery Assocation (ORVCA). Invited to present a round table discussion on “Microparticles and Microvesicles”with Philip Hexley, Ph.D., Cincinnati, OH, USA.


1. Babcock GF, Berryhill DL, Marsh DH. R-Factors of Escherichia coli from beef and humans. Appl. Microbiol. 1973; 25: 21-23.
2. Mc Carthy RE, Arnold LW, Babcock GF. Dextran sulfate: an adjuvant for cell-mediated immune response. Immunology. 1977; 32: 963-974.
3. Babcock GF, Mc Carthy RE. Suppression of cell-mediated immune responses by dextran sulfate. Immunology. 1977; 33: 925-930.
4. Mc Carthy RE, Babcock GF. Simultaneous stimulation and suppression of two different indicators of the cell-mediated immune response by the immunoregulator dextran sulfate. Immunology. 1978; 34: 927-930.
5. Whitmore AC, Babcock GF, Haughton G. Genetic control of susceptibility of mice to Rous sarcoma virus tumorigenesis. II. Segregation analysis of strain A.SW-associated resistance to primary tumor induction. J. Immunol. 1978; 121: 213-220.
6. Haughton G, Lanier LL, Babcock GF. The murine kappa light chain shift. Nature. 1978; 275: 154-157. doi: 10.1038/275154a0
7. Babcock GF, Lanier LL, Lynes MA, Haughton G. A simple method for the preparation of antisera specific for murine immunoglobulin heavy chains. J Immunol Methods. 1978; 23: 1-6. doi: 10.1016/0022-1759(78)90103-5
8. Lynes MA, Lanier LL, Babcock GF, Haughton G. Antigen-induced murine B cell lymphomas. Induction and characterization of CH1 and CH2. J. Immunol. 1978; 121: 2352-2357.
9. Lanier LL, Babcock GF, Lynes MA, Haughton G. Early detection of the CH1 murine and lymphoma by tumor-associated idiotype in the serum. Int. J. Cancer. 1979; 24: 53-59. doi: 10.1002/ijc.2910240110
10. Lanier LL, Babcock GF, Lynes MA, Haughton G. Antigen-induced murine B cell lymphomas. II. Passive anti-idiotype serum therapy and its combined effect with chemotherapy. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1979; 63: 1417-1422. doi: 10.1093/jnci/63.6.1417
11. Banks RA, Babcock GF, Whitmore AC, Haughton G. Effect of immunological intervention on in vivo murine Rous sarcoma virus tumorigenesis. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1979; 63: 1423-1431. doi: 10.1093/jnci/63.6.1423
12. Lanier, L, Babcock GF, Raybourne R, Arnold L, Warner N, Haughton G. Mechanism of a B cell lymphoma immunotherapy with passive xenogenic anti-idiotype serum. J Immunol. 1980; 125: 1730-1736.
13. Amoscato A, Babcock GF, Nishioka K. A cautionary note regarding contaminants in commercial preparations of the tetrapeptide tuftsin: Analysis by high performance liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. 1981; 205: 179-184.
14. Nishioka K, Amoscato A, Babcock GF. Tuftsin: A hormone-like tetrapeptide with antimicrobial and antitumor activities. Life Sci. 1981; 28: 1081-1090. doi: 10.1016/0024-3205(81)90684-6
15. Philips JH, Babcock GF, Nishioka K. Tuftsin: A naturally occurring immunopotentiating factor. In vitro enhancement of murine natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity. J Immunol. 1981; 126: 915-921.
16. Noyes RD, Babcock GF, Nishioka K. Antitumor activity of tuftsin on murine melanoma in vivo. Cancer Treat Rep. 1981; 65: 673-675.
17. Nishioka K, Babcock GF, Philips JH, Noyes RD. Antitumor effect of tuftsin. Mol. Cell Biochem. 1981; 41: 13-18. doi: 10.1007/BF00225293
18. Babcock GF, Noyes R, Nishioka K. The effect of tuftsin and immunopotentiating peptide, on Couldman S-91 melanoma in vivo. Pigment Cell Res. 1981; 11: 623-628.
19. Nishioka K, Takami H, Noyes RD, Babcock GF. Cloudman S-91 melanoma colony assay in the lungs of mice and the profiles of the biochemical tumor markers, tyrosinase and polyamines. Pigment Cell Res. 1981; 11: 617-621.
20. Philips JH, Babcock GF. NKP-15: A monoclonal antibody reactive against purified human natural killer cells and granulocytes. Immunol. Lett. 1983; 6: 143-149.
21. Babcock GF, Philips JH. NK cells: Light and electron microscope characteristics. Survey Immunol. Res. 1983; 2: 88-101.
22. Lanier LL, Engleman EG, Gatenby P, Babcock GF, Warner NL, Herzenberg LA. Correlation of functional properties of human lymphoid cell subsets and surface marker phenotypes using multiparameter analysis and flow cytometry. Immunol. Rev. 1983; 74: 143-160. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-065X.1983.tb01088.x
23. Amoscato AA, Davies PJA, Babcock GF, Nishioka K. Receptor-mediated internalization of tuftsin by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J Reticuloendothel Soc. 1983; 34: 53-67.
24. Lanier LL, Le AM, Philips JH, Warner NL, Babcock GF. Subpopulations of human natural killer cells defined by expression the Leu 7 (HNK-1) and Leu 11 (NKP-15) antigens. J Immunol. 1983; 131: 1789-1796.
25. Babcock GF, Amoscato A, Nishioka K. The effect of tuftsin on the migration, chemotaxis and differentiation of macrophages and granulocytes. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1983; 419: 64-74. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1983.tb37092.x
26. Amoscato AA, Davies PN, Babcock GF, Nishioka K. Receptor-mediated internalization of tuftsin. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1983; 419: 114-134. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1983.tb37097.x
27. Philips JH, Nishioka K, Babcock GF. Tuftsin-induced enhancement of human and murine natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1983; 419: 192-204. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1983.tb37104.x
28. Nishioka K, Babcock GF, Philips JH, Banks RA, Amoscato AA. In vivo and in vitro antitumor activities of tuftsin. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1983; 419: 234-241. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1983.tb37109.x
29. Lanier LL, Philips JH, Warner NL, Babcock GF. A human natural killer cell associated antigen defined by monoclonal antibody Leu 11 (NKP-15): Functional and two color cytometry analysis. J Leukocyte Biol. 1984; 35: 11-17.
30. Nishioka K, Amoscato AA, Babcock GF, Banks RA, Philips JH. Tuftsin: An immunomodulating peptide hormone and its clinical potential as a natural biological response modifier. Cancer Invest. 1984; 2: 39-49.
31. Amoscato AA, Babcock GF, Nishioka K. Synthesis and biological activity of L-3-4-dehydroproline 3 tuftsin. Peptides. 1984; 5: 489-494.
32. Pollack RE, Babcock GF, Romsdahi MM, Nishioka K. Surgical stress-mediated suppression of natural killer cell cytotoxicity. Cancer Res. 1984; 44: 3888-3891.
33. Lewis DE, Puck JM, Babcock GF, Rich RR. Lymphocyte subsets in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), AIDS related complex (ARC) and acute viral infections. Trans Assoc Am Phys. 1984; 97: 197-204.
34. Ota DM, Jessup JM, Babcock GF, et al. Immune function during intravenous administration of a soybean oil emulsion. J Parent Enter Nutr. 1985; 9: 23-27. doi: 10.1177/014860718500900123
35. Lewis DE, Puck J, Babcock GF, Rich RR. Disproportionate expansion of a minor T cell subset in patients with lymphadenopathy syndrome and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Infect Dis. 1985; 151: 555-559. doi: 10.1093/infdis/151.3.555
36. Banks RA, Nishioka K, Kazazi F, Babcock GF. Effect of tuftsin on in vivo development of 3 methylcholanthrene-induced primary fibrosarcoma and Lewis lung carcinoma in mice. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 1985; 74: 1079-1083.
37. Schantz DSP, Romsdahi MM, Babcock GF, Nishioka K, Goepfert H. The effect of surgery on natural killer cell activity in head and neck cancer patients: in vitro reversal of postoperatively suppressed immunosurveillance system. Laryngoscope. 1985; 95: 588-594.
38. Jessup JM, Babcock GF. Lymphoproliferative response to autologous tumor-associated antigens correlates with good prognosis in patients with colorectal carcinoma. Surg. Forum. 1985; 36: 384-385.
39. Lai CS, Babcock GF, Alexander JW. Indefinite survival of rat skin allograft induced by topical cyclosporine A. Surg. Forum. 1986; 37: 603-604.
40. Weiner D, Watson S, Babcock GF, Keller S. Expression of human T antigens in interspecies hybridomas. Cell Immunol. 1986; 100: 197-209. doi: 10.1016/0008-8749(86)90019-5
41. Amoscato AA, Babcock GF, Sramkoski RM, Hynd BA, Alexander JW. Synthesis of two biologically active fluorescent probes of thymopentin. Int. J. Peptide Protein Res. 1987; 29: 177-186. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3011.1987.tb02244.x
42. Lai CS, Alexander JW, Babcock GF. Combined use of topical cyclosporine A and silver sulfadiazine on allografts infected with Pseudomonas in burned rats. Burns. 1987;13: 181-184.
43. Bowlin TL, McKown BJ, Babcock GF, Sunkara PS. Intracellular polyamine biosynthesis is required for interleukin 2 responsiveness during lymphocyte mitogenesis. Cell Immunol. 1987; 106: 420-427.
44. Lai CS, Wesseler TA, Alexander JW, Babcock GF. Long term survival of skin allografts in rats treated with cyclosporine A. Transplantation. 1987 44: 83-87.
45. Babcock GF, Taylor AF, Hynd BA, Sramkoski RM, Alexander JW. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte subset phenotypes comparing normal children and adults. Diagn. Clin. Immunol. 1987; 5: 175-179.
46. Banks RA, Babcock GF, Nishioka K. Effect of oral administered or lipisome-encapsulated tuftsin on survival of C57BL/6 mice inoculated with Lewis lung carcinoma. J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. 1988; 7: 21-26.
47. Zhao XF, Schroeder TJ, Alexander JW, Miskell P, Gonce SJ, Babcock GF. The prolongation of skin allograft survival by topical use of cyclosporine A. Transplant. Proc. 1988; 20: 670-673.
48. Perez RV, Heyd TJ, Munda R, Babcock GF, Alexander JW. Induction of long term cardiac allograft survival with multiple donor specific transfusions and cyclosporine. Curr. Surg. 1988; 49: 9-12.
49. Babcock GF. Workshop on flow cytometry methodologies. Cytometry. 1988; 3: 106-107. doi: 10.1002/cyto.990090822
50. Babcock GF, Smith LA, Alexander JW. A comparison of single and multiple blood transfusions on the mixed lymphocyte response of rats. Transplant. Proc. 1988; 20: 194-198.
51. Zhao XF, Schroeder T, Alexander JW, Babcock GF. The synergistic effect of low dose cyclosporine A and fluocinolone acetonide on the survival of rat skin allogenic skin grafts. Transplantation. 1988; 46: 490 492.
52. Amoscato AA, Balasubramaniam A, Alexander JW, Babcock GF. Degradation of thymopentin by human lymphocytes: evidence for aminopeptidase activity. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1988; 955: 164-174.
53. Perez RV, Babcock GF, Alexander JW. Altered macrophage function in dietary immunoregulation. J Parent Enter Nutr. 1989; 13(1): 1-4. doi: 10.1177/014860718901300101
54. Amoscato AA, Alexander JW, Babcock GF. Surface aminopeptidase activity of human lymphocytes. I. Biochemical and biological properties. J. Immunol. 1989; 142: 1245-1252.
55. Perez RV, Babcock GF, Alexander JW. Immunoregulation of transfusion induced immunosuppression with inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism. Transplantation. 1989; 48: 85-87.
56. Babcock GF, Alexander JW, Warden GD. Flow cytometric analysis of neutrophil subsets in thermally injured patients developing infection. J Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1990; 54: 117-125.
57. Peck MD, Ogle CK, Alexander JW, Babcock GF. Effect of dietary fatty acids in response to Pseudomonas infection in burned mice. J Trauma. 1990; 30: 448-452.
58. Sasamoto Y, Alexander JW, Babcock GF. Prolonged survival of reconstituted skin grafts without immunosuppression. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1990; 11: 190-200.
59. Fang C, Peck MD, Alexander JW, Babcock GF, Warden GD. The effect of free radical scavengers on outcome after infection in burned mice. J Trauma. 1990; 30: 453-456.
60. Alexander JW, Boyce ST, Babcock GF, Childress CP, Ash SK. The process of microbial translocation. Ann. Surg. 1990; 212: 496-512.
61. Amoscato AA, Sramkoskii RM, Babcock GF, Alexander JW. Surface aminopeptidase activity of human tumor cell lines. Biochem Biophys Acta. 1990; 104: 317-319.
62. Sramkoskii RM, Babcock GF. The use of microbead alignment standards to standardize a flow cytometer. Flow Cytometry Standards. 1990; 2: 1-9.
63. Peck MD, Ogle CK, Alexander JW and Babcock GF. Dietary fat and infection in burned animals. J. Burn Care Rehabil. 1991; 12: 43-45.
64. Alexander JW, Gianotti L, Pyles T, Carey MA, Babcock GF. Distribution and survival of Escherichia coli translocating from the intestine following thermal injury. Ann Surg. 1991; 213: 558-567.
65. White-Owen CL, Alexander JW, Babcock GF. Reduced expression of neutrophil CD11 and CD16 after severe traumatic injury. J. Surg. Res. 1991; 52: 22-26. doi:
66. Alexander JW, Babcock GF, First MR, et al. The induction of immunologic hyporesponsiveness by preoperative donor specific transfusion and cyclosporine in human cadaveric transplants. Transplantation. 1992; 53: 423-427.
67. De Stefano JA, Sleight RG, Babcock GF, Sramkoski RM, Walzer PD. Isolation of Pneumocystis carinii cysts by flow cytometry. Parasitol. Res. 1992; 78: 179-182. doi: 10.1007/BF00931724
68. Gianotti, L, Pyles T, Alexander JW, Babcock GF, Carey MA. Impact of blood transfusion and burn injury on microbial translocation and bacterial survival. Transfusion. 1992; 32: 312-317. doi: 10.1046/j.1537-2995.1992.32492263443.x
69. Peck MD, Babcock GF, Alexander JW. The role of protein and calorie restriction in outcome from Salmonella infection in mice. J. Parenter. Enter. Nutr. 1992; 16: 561-565. doi: 10.1177/0148607192016006561
70. White-Owen, C, Alexander JW, Babcock GF. Reduced PMN *2 integrins after trauma: a possible role for colony stimulating factors. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 1993; 92: 477-481.
71. White-Owen C, Alexander JW, Sramkoski RM, Babcock GF. A rapid whole blood microassay for neutrophil phagocytosis using flow cytometry. J. Clin. Microbiol. 1992; 30: 2071-2076.
72. Peck MD, Babcock GF, Alexander JW. The role of protein and calorie restriction in outcome from Salmonella infection in mice. J. Parent. Enter. Nutr. 1992; 16: 561-565. doi: 10.1177/0148607192016006561
73. Gianotti L, Munda R, Alexander JW, Tchervenkov JI, Babcock GF. Microbial translocation: a potential mechanism for infection during acute pancreatitis. Pancreas. 1993; 8: 551-558.
74. Gianotti L, Alexander JW, Pyles T, Babcock GF. Relationship between extent of burn injury and magnitude of microbial translocation from the intestine. J. Burn Care Rehabil. 1993; 14: 336-342.
75. Alexander JW, First MR, Davies CB, Campbell P, Babcock GF. Donor-specific transfusion-induced tolerance in animals and man: a therapeutic strategy. Transplant Sci. 1993; 3: 72-75.
76. Gianotti L, Pyles T, Alexander JW, Fukushima R, Babcock GF. Identification of the blood component responsible for increased susceptibility to gut-derived infection. Transfusion. 1993; 33: 458-465. doi: 10.1046/j.1537-2995.1993.33693296806.x
77. Madden RL, Davies CB, Alexander JW, Babcock GF, Denman DL. The effect of posttransplant TLI combined with cyclosporine and a donor-specific transfusion on rat cardiac allograft survival. Transplant. Sci. 1993; 3: 38-40.
78. Gianotti L, Pyles T, Alexander JW, Babcock GF. Prostaglandin E1, analogues, misoprosil and enisoprost decrease microbial translocation in thermally injured mice. Circulatory Shock. 1993; 40: 243-249.
79. Wolos JA, Frondorf KA, Babcock GF, Stripp SA, Bowlin TA. Immunomodulation by an inhibitor of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase: inhibition of in vitro and in vivo allogeneic responses. Cell. Immunol. 1993; 149: 402-408. doi: 10.1006/cimm.1993.1165
80. Babcock GF, Sramkoski RM, Alexander JW. The advantages and disadvantages of the routine use of three color immunofluorescence and flow cytometry in the research and clinical laboratories to study leukocytes. Crit. Rev. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 1994; 1: 235-267.
81. Solomkin JS, Bass RC, Bjornson HS, Tindal CJ, Babcock GF. Alterations of neutrophil responses to tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-8 following human endotoxemia. Infect. Immun. 1994; 62: 943-947.
82. Gennari R, Alexander JW, Pyles TE, Babcock GF. Heparan sulphate increases survival during gut derived sepsis by decreasing bacterial translocation and enhancing host defense. Shock. 1994; 2: 246-250.
83. Swope VB, Abdel-Malek Z, et al. Differential synthesis of IL-1* and IL-1* by neonatal and adult melanocytes. J. Invest. Dermatol. 1994; 102: 749-753.
84. De Stefano JA, Sleight RG, Babcock GF, Walzer PD. Fractionation of Pneumocystis carinii, developmental stages by counter flow centrifugal elutriation and sequential filtrations. Prasitol. Res. 1994; 80: 1-9. doi: 10.1007/BF00932616
85. Abdel-Melek ZV. Swope D, Smalara G, et al. Analysis of the UV induced melanogenesis and growth arrest of human melanocytes. Pig. Cell Res. 1994; 7: 326-332. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0749.1994.tb00635.x
86. Gianotti L, Alexander JW, Gennarim R, Pyles T, Babcock GF. Oral glutamine decreases bacterial translocation and improves survival in experimental gut-origin sepsis. J. Parent. Enter. Nutr. 1995; 14: 69-74. doi: 10.1177/014860719501900169
87. Barker DK, Dixon EE, Medrano D, et al. Comparison of the responses of human melanocytes with different melanin contents to UVB irradiation. Cancer Res. 1995; 55: 4041-4046.
88. Gianotti, L, Alexander JW, Pyles T, Gennari R, Babcock GF. Translocation and survival of Bacteroides fragilis following thermal injury. J. Burn Care Rehab. 1995; 16: 127-131.
89. Nordlund JJ, Casato M, Babcock G, Takei F. Low ICAM-1 expression in the epidermis of depigmenting C57BL/6J-mivit/mivit mice: a possible cause of muted contact sensitization. Exp. Dermatol. 1995; 4: 20-29. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0625.1995.tb00217.x
90. Peck MD, Babcock GF, Alexander JW, Billiar T, Ochoa J. High doses of dietary arginine during repletion impair weight gain and increase infectious mortality in protein-malnourished mice. Brit.J. Nutrition. 1995; 74: 787-795. doi:
91. Babcock GF, Alexander JW. The effects of blood transfusion on cytokine production by TH1 and TH2 lymphocytes in the mouse. Transplantation. 1996; 61: 465-468.
92. Osterburg AR, Yamaguchi R, Robinson CT, Hyon SH, Babcock GF. The Effects of (-)-Epigallocatechin 3-Galate on Wound Closure and Infections in Mice. Surg Res Open J. 2014; 1(1): 1-9. 10.17140/SROJ-1-101
93.Osterburg AR, Yamaguchi R, Robinson CT, Hyon SH, Babcock GF. The Effects of (-)-Epigallocatechin- 3-Galate on Wound Closure and Infections in Mice. Surg Res Open J. 2014; 1(1): 1-9.doi: 10.17140/SROJ-1-101