A Special Edition by

Advances in Food Technology and Nutritional Sciences – Open Journal (AFTNSOJ)

Submissions Deadline: May 30th, 2015 (Publication free of charges)

Release Date: October 27th, 2015 (Accepted papers will be published online immediately)

William W. Riley, PhD

Professor
Food Quality and Safety
International School
Jinan University
Guangzhou 510632, China
E-mail: wmriley54@gmail.com

Malik Altaf Hussain, MSc, PhD

Associate Director
Centre for Food Research and Innovation
Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, New Zealand
Tel. +64 3 4230638
E-mail: malik.hussain@lincoln.ac.nz

Introduction of Special Edition

Food Security and Food Sciences

The special edition on “Food Security and Food Sciences” is an initiative by Advances in Food Technology and Nutritional Sciences – Open Journal to understand emerging global challenge of feeding the scorching world population from food science perspective. The science of food security investigates the reasons of the hunger that causes death of millions of people around the globe Many approaches are on the table to suggest remedies of the situations that include: addressing global warming, droughts and climate change; increasing food productions; reduction in the world population growth; modernizing governmental policies; managing the fluctuation in food marketing; and so on. A new developing approach emphasizes to improve food systems and utilization through food product innovation, better food supply chain, preservation and storage as well as effective food safety management.

This special edition of AFTNSOJ invites manuscripts from all disciplines within food sciences for a better understanding of the global food security challenges and suggestion to tackle the killer of millions on our planet.

 

Editorial

Food Security and Food Sciences

Malik Altaf Hussain*

PDF425 KB425 KB




Mini Review

Microbial Resources to Safeguard Future Food Security

Marzieh Hosseini Nezhad*, Jafar Shafiabadi and Malik Altaf Hussain

PDF684 KB684 KB





Research

Inadequacies in Good Manufacturing Practices and High Health Risks are Still Problems in Food Production in Public Preschools and Daycares in Rio Branco, Acre, Western Brazilian Amazonia

Irla Maiara Silva Medeiros, Stefany Guerreiro Lima, Bárbara de Almeida Maffi, Larissa de Lima Abadia, Fernanda Andrade Martins, Tatiane Dalamaria and Alanderson Alves Ramalho*

PDF568 KB568 KB



Mini Review

Conservation of Rice Genetic Resources for Food Security

Roel C. Rabara*, Marilyn C. Ferrer, Mark Ian C. Calayugan, Malvin D. Duldulao and Jennifer Jara-Rabara

PDF2.12 MB2.12 MB

 

Dr. Malik Altaf Hussain

(Guest Editor)

A Special Edition by

Advances in Food Technology and Nutritional Sciences – Open Journal (AFTNSOJ)

Submissions Deadline: July 31st, 2018 (Publication free of charges)

Release Date: August 31st, 2018 (Accepted papers will be published online immediately)

Deepti Dabas, PhD

Lead Scientist
Kalsec Inc.
3713 West Main Street
Kalamazoo 49006, Michigan, USA
E-mail: DDabas@kalsec.com

Matt Jones, PhD

Lead Scientist and Team Leader
Discovery group
Kalsec Inc
3713, West Main street
Kalamazoo, MI 49006
E-mail: mjones@kalsec.com

Introduction of Special Edition

Polyphenols for Improving Food Quality and Nutraceuticals

The topic of this special edition is ‘Polyphenols for improving food quality and nutraceuticals’. Polyphenols are the subject of increasing scientific interest because of their possible beneficial effects on human health. Not only that, they have an as important role in improving appearance, taste and color of foods. They can act as coloring agents, flavoring agents, antioxidants and emulsifiers. They also act as metal chelators. These characteristics add up to improve the overall quality of the food. New polyphenol sources are constantly being screened for these effects. We invite papers which explore role of polyphenols as heath improving or food improving agents.

 

Editorial Introduction

Polyphenols are widely present in various fruits, vegetables and plant parts. Polyphenols are products of secondary metabolism of plants and protect them against animals and provide defense against UV radiation. They also provide antioxidant protection from free radicals generated during photosynthetic process. Polyphenols have been proven to have beneficial effects on human health. A lot of attention is focused on polyphenols due to their bioactive properties. High consumption of fruits, vegetables and beverages like tea and red wine is related to health promoting effects. Polyphenols are not only consumed as part of fruit and vegetables but different products having increased purity are widely available in the form of dietary supplements.

Polyphenols can be broadly categorized into phenolic acids or flavonoids. More than 8000 phenolic compounds are currently known and among them over 4000 flavonoids have been identified. Phenolic acids are non-flavonoid polyphenolic compounds which can be further divided into main types –benzoic acids and cinnamic acid derivatives. Flavonoids have a C6-C3-C6 backbone in which two C6 units (Ring A and Ring B) are of phenolic nature. Owing to variations in chromane ring, flavonoids can be further divided into different subgroups like anthocyanins, flavones, flavan-3-ols, flavones, flavanones, flavonols, chalcones, neoflavanoids, isoflavones etc. A large number of flavonoids have their Ring B attached to C2 position of Ring C.Anthocyanins, flavones, flavan-3-ols, flavones, flavanones and flavonols belong to this category. Isoflavones have their Ring B attached to C3 of Ring C andchalcones have the ring C open. Neoflavanoids which have the Ring B attached to C4 of Ring C are also found, although not as commonly. Proanthocyanidins are made by polymerization of flavonols. Polyphenolic amides like capsaicin have amide groups in addition to having polyphenolic group. Capsaicin belongs to capsaicinoids which are responsible for hotness of chilli peppers and have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

Rate of obesity has been increasing in many countries over the years. Obesity has been reported as a risk factor for a number of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases,neurodegenerative diseases,diabetes and cancer. Polyphenols, more specifically flavonoids, have been studied for various biological effects – antioxidant, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory and improvement of cardiovascular health. Discussing specifically about cancer – many polyphenols have been reported to have chemo- preventive capacity. Chemo-preventive activity of an agent is investigated employing carcinogens or spontaneously induced tumor or appropriate pathways in experimental animal or cell culture assay. Appropriate pathways or biomarkers are chosen to observe the effects. Markers like cell proliferation and apoptosis and various detoxification pathways have also been successfully used for demonstrating protective action in vivo system.However there are some things to be keptin mind while suggesting polyphenolic compounds as effective molecules.It is crucial to know the doses and duration of consumption of active constituents. Some trials have found that administration of dietary polyphenols resulted in low levels in blood, which probably stopped its progress to clinic. Search for potential factors contributing to low bioavailability suggest low aqueous solubility of compounds. Some molecules like procyanidins are absorbed poorly in the gut leading to lesser effect. In some cases, there is extensive conversion to conjugates/metabolites, like some anthocyanins.

Improving bioavailability is crucial to using these compounds in disease prevention. Use of nano-carriers, incorporation in polymers, proteins/amino acids or phospholipids or using polyphenols coated with natural oil/s are some of the options.

Also currently available models may suffer form their own limitations and hence existing models may need to be improved. Before starting clinical trials, a thorough investigation of mechanisms is crucial. However understanding protective effect of one class of agent alone may not address the issue satisfactorily. Identifying novel prevention approaches and developing number of dietary polyphenols offering different mechanisms of action would help in preventing diseases. They can also be combined with chemo therapy or other conventional approaches to reach the desired goal in treatment.

Overall, interest in this interesting class of molecules is continuing to grow and we are hopeful of their growing use as disease prevention aid.

 

 

 

Dr. Deepti Dabas

(Guest Editor)