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Gumboro is an acute, highly contagious, and immunosuppressive viral disease of young chickens less than 17-weeks. However, in local chicken flocks of Ilubabor, there is no known sero-status of the disease.
To address this information gap, a cross-sectional study was conducted in local backyard chicken flocks of three districts of Ilubabor Zone where chick mortality and morbidity were a big problem. The objectives of the study were to estimate the seroprevalence of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and to assess its risk factors.
Out of 418 serum samples tested, 180 were positive and the overall chicken level seroprevalence of the IBDV antibody in the study area was found to be 43.10% (95% CI: 38.40-47.85) and flock-level seroprevalence was 45.63% (73/160) (95%CI: 37.91-53.34) with almost all test positive flock chickens were seropositive. Multivariable analysis at chicken level showed that the odds of IBDV seroprevalence was significantly high in Metu and Bilo Nopa districts, in purchased, in female and adult chickens. Also, it was high at flock level in chickens mixed with exotic breeds, in flocks having greater than 5 chickens.
This study shows that IBDV is circulating in the chicken population of Ilubabor at a high prevalence level. Therefore, further studies on serotypes and strains of IBDV identification should be carried out to design suitable control and prevention measures.
Cross-sectional; Ethiopia; Backyard chickens; IBDV; Risk factors; Seroprevalence.
Dystocia means difficulty in parturition to the point of needing human intervention and it is a major cause of lamb loss in the flock and may result in great economic loss to the farmers. Two local breed adult ewes of different age and causes of dystocia were presented to Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH) with the history of full-term gestation and three-month gestation in case 1 and 2, respectively. Clinical and physical examination finding revealed that there were weak and unable to stand, and straining in case 1 and anorexia, lethargy, recumbent with attempt to stand, abdominal distension and granting sound in case 2. Live fetus in case 1 and died fetus in case 2 was dictated up on abdominal palpation and ultrasonography findings. Vaginal examination also has undergone and revealed that incomplete dilation of cervix in case 1. Depending on diagnostic finding caesarian section were admitted and a single live fetus and a twin died fetuses were removed from case 1 and 2, respectively under line infiltration anaesthesia in case 1 and inverted “L” blocks in case 2. Following the successful caesarian section the dam of case 1 was died after 18-hours of post-surgery but the dam of case 2 was recovered uneventfully without any complications in period of 15 post-operative days.
Caesarian section; Dystocia; Ewes.
An abscess is the most common swelling observed on the skin surface of the animal body with a collection of pus due to microbial invasion of the dermis and its supporting structures.
In the present case, nine-years old male Zebu cattle were presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH) with a history of swelling on the cheek. Clinical findings of the mass revealed that there was well-circumscribed, firm, movable cold, and not painful superficial skin swelling on the body of the mandible and check. Culturing on blood agar and gram staining was conducted and then, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was isolated from the sample. Following clinical and laboratory finding the case was diagnosed as caseous lymphadenitis and En bloc excision of the case was performed under local infiltration of anesthesia.
The suture was removed after 15-days post-intervention and the bull was successfully recovered without any other complications. Therefore, management of well-circumscribed, firm, and movable superficial skin abscess in cattle through en bloc excision along with antibacterial therapy and allowing the skin wound to heal by the first intention should be effective.
Abscess; Bull; Caseous lymphadenitis; En bloc excision.
brief research report
The study was conducted between December 2021-June 2022 with an objective to assess the current status of veterinary drugs used in veterinary clinics of Dire Dawa and Haramaya districts using a questionnaire, personal interviews, and observations of public veterinary clinics.
A total number of 40 public veterinary clinics were selected, purposively selected, and included in the study, and veterinary professionals working in each veterinary clinic were conveniently selected by using a non-probability method. The assessment methods such as descriptive drug use indicators, prescribing practices and other drug information sources and drugs of choice at health facilities were included.
The results obtained were as; a majority of the clinicians (57.5%) were Bachelor of Veterinary Science (BVSc) and above. Nearly half (42.5%) of clinicians used only a verbal prescription for prescribing drugs. Oxytetracycline was available in all clinics and 32(80%) responded as it is their first drug of choice for treatment. Only 50% of the clinicians responded as they administer drugs and treat animals presented to their clinic for a definitive (laboratory investigation) diagnosis. The majority (80%) of respondents use antibacterials for prophylaxis. Major factors considered in drug selection by 92.5% of professionals amongst alternative drugs were its availability. About 98% of respondents use promotion materials or leaflets of different drugs as a source of information.
The study showed that the trend of using prescription papers for prescribing drugs was not enough and prescription papers did not include the relevant information that should be incorporated in drug ordering and dispensing drug prescriptions by and large based on tentative diagnosis and inappropriate drug selection were found to be bottlenecks for the successful drug treatment that leads to drug resistance. Therefore, awareness and training should be provided regularly for prescribers and end users about the proper way of drug use.
Dire Dawa; Haramaya; Rational use; Veterinary clinics; Veterinary drugs.
Salmonella is one of the most common and significant human and animal food-borne pathogens that cause salmonellosis, which has high medical and monetary costs. Salmonella has a big impact on public health because it can spread zoonotic and foodborne diseases to people. Many domestic and wild animals intestinal tracts serve as the main reservoir for Salmonella, which can result in the direct or indirect contamination of a variety of foods with fecal organisms. Salmonellae are etiological agents of diarrheal and systemic infections. They can be shed in large numbers on the faces of clinical cases and carrier animals, causing contamination of the environment and frequently resulting in subclinical infections. Infection in food animals often leads to contamination of meat, eggs, milk and cheese. The organism can also spread through direct contact with infected humans, animals, or feces contaminated environments. Infected food handlers may also act as a source of contamination for foodstuffs, because of the increasing antibiotic resistance of organisms and companion animals, animals are an important source of Salmonella infection for humans. Salmonella can colonize its hosts by invading, adhering, and bypassing the host’s intestinal defense mechanisms, such as gastric acid, thanks to a variety of virulence markers and determinants, including flagella, capsule, plasmids, adhesion systems, and secretion systems. Diagnosis is based on the isolation of the organism either from tissues collected aseptically at necropsy or from faces, rectal swabs or environmental samples, food products, and feedstuffs; prior or current infection of animals by some agents may also be diagnosed serologically.
Salmonellosis; Animals; Zoonosis; Diagnosis; Transmission.
Urinary and bowel dysfunction is a condition that encompasses loss of bladder and bowel control which is characterized by partial or complete loss of defecation and urination. Urinary and bowel dysfunction is multifactorial and mainly caused by spinal cord injury at the lumbosacral level or more cranial. The present case report was aimed to show techniques and outcomes of colotomy to resolve constipation secondary to bowel dysfunction in a cat. A 1-year-old female cat weighing 1.3 kg was presented to Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a history of anorexia dullness, abdominal distension, and absence of defecation for the last 8-days. Clinical examination revealed stunted growth, poor body condition, very weak anal and pedal reflex, distended abdomen, dehydration, and lateral recumbency. Based on the history and clinical findings the case was diagnosed as constipation and exploratory laparotomy was indicated after sufficient stabilization. The caudal ventral midline was used to perform colotomy to remove accumulated feces. Post-operatively fluid therapy, antibiotics, laxative, and vitamins were administered accordingly. Upon 52-days follow-up; the patient was able to pass her feces completely, while urine retention and incontinence remains unresolved. Therefore, the owner was advised how to apply gentle external compression of the bladder to assist urination.
Cat; Colotomy; Constipation; Incontinence.
This study was conducted by using the protocols of post-mortem examinations of meat (visual inspection) to determine the prevalence of bovine cysticercosis in the cattle slaughtered at Haramaya Municipal Abattoir, Eastern Hararghe, Ethiopia and to determine zoonotic significance of taeniasis.
A cross-section study design was conducted from November 2020 to March 2021, based on routine meat inspection on simple randomly selected cattle slaughtered at the abattoir. Visual inspection of all exposed surface was made in all active organs. They are shoulder muscles, hearts, masseters (cheek muscle), diaphragms, tongues and livers. This is followed by incision of all those organs to be examined for Cysticercus bovis cysts.
Twenty-one (21) of the 384 cattle examined utilizing the post-mortem examinations meat inspection methodology were positive for C. bovis, resulting in a prevalence of 5.5 %. The masseter muscle (11.5 %) had the highest prevalence of cysts, followed by the triceps (8.3%), heart (5.8%), liver (4.8 %), and tongue (2.9 %). The sex-based prevalence rates were 10 (3.4%) and 11 (12.1%), respectively. The predominance of bodily condition was found to be good (1.3%), medium (11.1%), and bad (50 %). The prevalence male and female e differed substantially by organ, sex, and bodily condition (p>0.05), but not statistically significant by age of the animals (young 2.8% vs. adult 6.1%) (p>0.05). Eight (20%) of the total 40 interviewees had contracted Taenia saginata infection at least once in their lives. Religion showed a significant difference (p>0.05) (Christian 66.7% and Muslim 6.5%). However, there was no statistically significant difference in meat consumption habits (raw 31.6% vs. cooked 9.5%), sex (male 26.5% vs. female 11.8%), age (young 33.3% vs. adult 17.7%), educational status (illiterate 22.2% vs. elementary 14.3% vs. high school 27.3% vs. college 16.7%) or latrine use (proper users 19.4% and non-proper users 25%).
This study to increasing public awareness of the disease, as well as strict routine meat inspections, should be prioritized in order to decrease the parasite’s impact.
Bovine, Cysticercus bovis; Haramaya Municipal Abattoir; Prevalence; Public health.
Narrow pelvis is characterized as an insufficient maternal bony pelvis that does not allow for fetal transit due to a variety of factors. Animal immaturity is one of these reasons. This communication was written with the goal of documenting surgical management of dystocia and its impact on a two-year-old heifer who was with a full-term pregnancy. A vaginal delivery was tried but failed due to the narrow maternal pelvis. To avoid any post-operative problems, the surgical management was carried out under strict aseptically. A volume of 30 ml 2% Lidocaine Hydrochloride was infiltrated on left flank with inverted L-block techniques. While the cow was on her right lateral recumbency. The uterus was emptied of a deceased fetus but fetal membrane with the intact umbilical cord was returned back to the womb. Suturing was done using standard surgical procedures, and post-surgical care was followed-up for ten-days. The heifer was successfully rehabilitated.
Dystocia; Heifer; Immaturity; Narrow pelvis; Surgical management.
This study was conducted using the questionnaire method to assess the effect of breed and factors affecting conception rate on artificial insemination in dairy cows in Tullo district, Western Haraghe, Ethiopia.
A follow-up study design was conducted from December 2018 to June 2019 to determine the effect of breed and factors affecting conception rate to artificial insemination in dairy cows, taking breed, age, parity, body condition and timing of insemination as risk factors. The demographic factors were recorded by interviewing the owners. Most of the cows were examined for pregnancy diagnosis by rectal palpation of the genital tract at 60-80-days post-artificial insemination.
Out of 114 artificially inseminated cows/heifers, 59 became pregnant, giving an overall first service conception rate of 51.8%. Although the breed, age, parity and body condition score did not affect the conception rate significantly, the pregnancy rate was better in the cross-breed (62.5%), in cows of 5-7-years of age (54.6%), in cows of parity 2-3 (59.2%) and in cows of good body condition score (57.7%). The conception rate in cows inseminated at 12-18-hours after the onset of estrus was significantly higher (62.3%) than those inseminated after 18-hours (31.2%) and before 12-hours (52.4%) after the onset of estrus. Therefore, cows with good body condition score (BCS) and artificial insemination (AI) service at 12-18-hours after the onset of estrus are the best choice of selection for obtaining the best result in the first service conception rate to AI in dairy cows/heifers.
This study reveals that the conception rate was influenced by the time of AI, so awareness should be given to cattle owners, as they should give AI for their cattle at optimum time within 12-18-hours after onset of heat sign.
Artificial insemination, breed, conception rate, Tullo district.
Infectious bursal disease, also known as Gumboro disease, is a highly contagious and acute viral disease of poultry characterised by the destruction of lymphoid cells. Diagnosis of infectious bursal disease involves consideration of the flocks’ history, clinical signs, and lesions. The objectives of this paper are to highlight various commonly used diagnostic methods for infectious bursal disease and to review advances made in diagnostic methods and vaccination strategies for infectious bursal disease, with special emphasis on the strengths and weaknesses of each of those techniques. Isolation of infectious bursal disease virus followed by its serological assay and histopathological examination of the bursa is regarded as the gold standard method of infectious bursal disease diagnosis. Serological tests such as agar gel, immune diffusion, enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay, and viral neutralisation tests are commonly used laboratory assays in diagnosing infectious bursal disease viruses. Recently, the most accurate and relatively fast diagnostic method, the molecular technique, is widely used. The molecular diagnostic technique is the simplest and most sensitive of the diagnostic techniques reviewed. The virus causes immunosuppression, so the infected chicken recovers from the acute disease but becomes more susceptible to infections by other pathogens. Therefore, prevention is important and vaccination has become the principal control measure of infectious bursal disease virus infection in chickens. Conventional attenuated live and killed vaccines are the most commonly used vaccines. With the advancement of knowledge and technology, new generation or genetically-engineered vaccines like deoxyribonucleic acid and subunit vaccines have been used. Various vaccination strategies, such as in ovo, at hatch, and post hatch vaccination, are used. Hatchery vaccination is becoming a common practice. Based on this review paper, more affordable and effective infectious bursal disease vaccines that are affordable and readily available must be identified with further cost-benefit analysis.
Infectious bursal disease; Infectious bursal disease virus; Diagnosis; Vaccine; Vaccination.
Associate Professor Department of Veterinary SciencesUniversity of Messina Polo Universitario dell Annunziata, 98168 Messina ME, Italy
Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences Feinberg school of MedicineNorthwestern University 303 E Chicago Ave, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
Professor Department of Veterinary Paraclinical Medicine University of GondarCollege of Veterinary Medicine Animal Sciences Gondar, Ethiopia