Volume 7, Issue 1

  • 2022, January

    case report

    Colotomy to Resolve Constipation Secondary to Spinal Cord Injury: A Case ReportOpen Access

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    Abstract [+]

    Urinary and bowel dysfunction is a condition that encompasses loss of bladder and bowel control which is characterized by partial or complete loss of defecation and urination. Urinary and bowel dysfunction is multifactorial and mainly caused by spinal cord injury at the lumbosacral level or more cranial. The present case report was aimed to show techniques and outcomes of colotomy to resolve constipation secondary to bowel dysfunction in a cat. A 1-year-old female cat weighing 1.3 kg was presented to Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a history of anorexia dullness, abdominal distension, and absence of defecation for the last 8-days. Clinical examination revealed stunted growth, poor body condition, very weak anal and pedal reflex, distended abdomen, dehydration, and lateral recumbency. Based on the history and clinical findings the case was diagnosed as constipation and exploratory laparotomy was indicated after sufficient stabilization. The caudal ventral midline was used to perform colotomy to remove accumulated feces. Post-operatively fluid therapy, antibiotics, laxative, and vitamins were administered accordingly. Upon 52-days follow-up; the patient was able to pass her feces completely, while urine retention and incontinence remains unresolved. Therefore, the owner was advised how to apply gentle external compression of the bladder to assist urination.
    Keywords
    Cat; Colotomy; Constipation; Incontinence.


  • 2022, March

    original research

    Prevalence and Public Health importance of Bovine Cysticercosis in Haramaya Municipal Abattoir, East Hararghe Zone of Oromia Regional State, Eastern EthiopiaOpen Access

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    Aim
    This study was conducted by using the protocols of post-mortem examinations of meat (visual inspection) to determine the prevalence of bovine cysticercosis in the cattle slaughtered at Haramaya Municipal Abattoir, Eastern Hararghe, Ethiopia and to determine zoonotic significance of taeniasis.
    Method
    A cross-section study design was conducted from November 2020 to March 2021, based on routine meat inspection on simple randomly selected cattle slaughtered at the abattoir. Visual inspection of all exposed surface was made in all active organs. They are shoulder muscles, hearts, masseters (cheek muscle), diaphragms, tongues and livers. This is followed by incision of all those organs to be examined for Cysticercus bovis cysts.
    Results
    Twenty-one (21) of the 384 cattle examined utilizing the post-mortem examinations meat inspection methodology were positive for C. bovis, resulting in a prevalence of 5.5 %. The masseter muscle (11.5 %) had the highest prevalence of cysts, followed by the triceps (8.3%), heart (5.8%), liver (4.8 %), and tongue (2.9 %). The sex-based prevalence rates were 10 (3.4%) and 11 (12.1%), respectively. The predominance of bodily condition was found to be good (1.3%), medium (11.1%), and bad (50 %). The prevalence male and female e differed substantially by organ, sex, and bodily condition (p>0.05), but not statistically significant by age of the animals (young 2.8% vs. adult 6.1%) (p>0.05). Eight (20%) of the total 40 interviewees had contracted Taenia saginata infection at least once in their lives. Religion showed a significant difference (p>0.05) (Christian 66.7% and Muslim 6.5%). However, there was no statistically significant difference in meat consumption habits (raw 31.6% vs. cooked 9.5%), sex (male 26.5% vs. female 11.8%), age (young 33.3% vs. adult 17.7%), educational status (illiterate 22.2% vs. elementary 14.3% vs. high school 27.3% vs. college 16.7%) or latrine use (proper users 19.4% and non-proper users 25%).
    Conclusion
    This study to increasing public awareness of the disease, as well as strict routine meat inspections, should be prioritized in order to decrease the parasite’s impact.
    Keywords
    Bovine, Cysticercus bovis; Haramaya Municipal Abattoir; Prevalence; Public health.


  • 2022, April

    case report

    A Case Report on Surgical Management of Dystocia in Heifers Due to Narrow Pelvis and ImmaturityOpen Access

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    Narrow pelvis is characterized as an insufficient maternal bony pelvis that does not allow for fetal transit due to a variety of factors. Animal immaturity is one of these reasons. This communication was written with the goal of documenting surgical management of dystocia and its impact on a two-year-old heifer who was with a full-term pregnancy. A vaginal delivery was tried but failed due to the narrow maternal pelvis. To avoid any post-operative problems, the surgical management was carried out under strict aseptically. A volume of 30 ml 2% Lidocaine Hydrochloride was infiltrated on left flank with inverted L-block techniques. While the cow was on her right lateral recumbency. The uterus was emptied of a deceased fetus but fetal membrane with the intact umbilical cord was returned back to the womb. Suturing was done using standard surgical procedures, and post-surgical care was followed-up for ten-days. The heifer was successfully rehabilitated.
    Keywords
    Dystocia; Heifer; Immaturity; Narrow pelvis; Surgical management.


  • 2022, May

    retrospective study

    Effect of Breed and Risk Factors Affecting Conception Rate to Artificial Insemination in Dairy Cows of Tullo District Western Haraghe, EthiopiaOpen Access

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    Aim
    This study was conducted using the questionnaire method to assess the effect of breed and factors affecting conception rate on artificial insemination in dairy cows in Tullo district, Western Haraghe, Ethiopia.
    Methods
    A follow-up study design was conducted from December 2018 to June 2019 to determine the effect of breed and factors affecting conception rate to artificial insemination in dairy cows, taking breed, age, parity, body condition and timing of insemination as risk factors. The demographic factors were recorded by interviewing the owners. Most of the cows were examined for pregnancy diagnosis by rectal palpation of the genital tract at 60-80-days post-artificial insemination.
    Results
    Out of 114 artificially inseminated cows/heifers, 59 became pregnant, giving an overall first service conception rate of 51.8%. Although the breed, age, parity and body condition score did not affect the conception rate significantly, the pregnancy rate was better in the cross-breed (62.5%), in cows of 5-7-years of age (54.6%), in cows of parity 2-3 (59.2%) and in cows of good body condition score (57.7%). The conception rate in cows inseminated at 12-18-hours after the onset of estrus was significantly higher (62.3%) than those inseminated after 18-hours (31.2%) and before 12-hours (52.4%) after the onset of estrus. Therefore, cows with good body condition score (BCS) and artificial insemination (AI) service at 12-18-hours after the onset of estrus are the best choice of selection for obtaining the best result in the first service conception rate to AI in dairy cows/heifers.
    Conclusion
    This study reveals that the conception rate was influenced by the time of AI, so awareness should be given to cattle owners, as they should give AI for their cattle at optimum time within 12-18-hours after onset of heat sign.
    Keywords
    Artificial insemination, breed, conception rate, Tullo district.


  • 2022, June

    review

    Review of Diagnostic and Vaccination Approaches of Infectious Bursal Disease of PoultryOpen Access

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    Infectious bursal disease, also known as Gumboro disease, is a highly contagious and acute viral disease of poultry characterised by the destruction of lymphoid cells. Diagnosis of infectious bursal disease involves consideration of the flocks’ history, clinical signs, and lesions. The objectives of this paper are to highlight various commonly used diagnostic methods for infectious bursal disease and to review advances made in diagnostic methods and vaccination strategies for infectious bursal disease, with special emphasis on the strengths and weaknesses of each of those techniques. Isolation of infectious bursal disease virus followed by its serological assay and histopathological examination of the bursa is regarded as the gold standard method of infectious bursal disease diagnosis. Serological tests such as agar gel, immune diffusion, enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay, and viral neutralisation tests are commonly used laboratory assays in diagnosing infectious bursal disease viruses. Recently, the most accurate and relatively fast diagnostic method, the molecular technique, is widely used. The molecular diagnostic technique is the simplest and most sensitive of the diagnostic techniques reviewed. The virus causes immunosuppression, so the infected chicken recovers from the acute disease but becomes more susceptible to infections by other pathogens. Therefore, prevention is important and vaccination has become the principal control measure of infectious bursal disease virus infection in chickens. Conventional attenuated live and killed vaccines are the most commonly used vaccines. With the advancement of knowledge and technology, new generation or genetically-engineered vaccines like deoxyribonucleic acid and subunit vaccines have been used. Various vaccination strategies, such as in ovo, at hatch, and post hatch vaccination, are used. Hatchery vaccination is becoming a common practice. Based on this review paper, more affordable and effective infectious bursal disease vaccines that are affordable and readily available must be identified with further cost-benefit analysis.
    Keywords
    Infectious bursal disease; Infectious bursal disease virus; Diagnosis; Vaccine; Vaccination.