Tail docking is usually performed on those dogs whose tail or associated structures have been injured. A two-year-old male dog was presented Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH) with complain of injury on the tail due to bite by another dog. The injured site of the tail was contaminated with the debris on presentation and the dog was in severe pain. Amputation of the tail at the level above the injury site of the tail was taken. Care for surgery, oxytetracycline wound spray was applied on the incision site of the tail; Pen Strep and Meloxicam were given for three-days. The suture material was removed 10th-day post-surgery and the tail stump healed uneventfully. Hence, tail amputation is the best option of treatment for severing traumatic tail and successful management of the injured tail was presented in the present case report.
Dog; Injured tail; Cosmetic tail docking.
Equines play a crucial role in the Ethiopian economy; however, their welfare is extremely poor. Wounds, eye problems, lameness, hoof problems, parasites, and poor body condition were the most dominant welfare issues identified from different part of the country.
The objective of this study was to assess the socio-economic importance and constraints of equines in and around Debre Berhan town, North Shewa Zone of the Amhara region, Central Ethiopia.
Material and Methods
A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was carried from November 2016 to April 2017 and a total of 150 equine owners from the three districts namely Debre Berhan (97), Basonaworana (41), and Chacha districts (12) were interviewed during the study period.
Accordingly, 66 (44%) and 46 (30.67%) of respondents use their equines for packing and carting. Besides, equines were also used for other social activities such as a funeral (2%), marriage (5.33%), religious ceremonies (23.33%), and mixed uses (69.34%). Diseases (46.67%), feed shortage (26%), water shortage (18%), and market unavailability of what (9.33%) were among the major constraints identified in the area. Moreover, gastrointestinal parasites (30%), back sore (16.67%), lameness (21.33%), colic (12%), and other diseases (20%) were the major health constraints of working equines in the study area.
The welfare and management of working equines in the study sites need more close attention and should be improved. Awareness creation through training in the welfare problems of equines is advantageous to fully exploit these animals.
A three-months-old Holstein Friesian crossbred calf weighing 56 kg was presented to Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Mekelle University, Ethiopia with a history of swelling at the umbilical region from birth since last few months. Clinical examination revealed
umbilical hernia with a hernial ring of 3 fingers breadth. The case was handled surgically by means of herniorrhaphy using overlapping mattress suture techniques and synthetic absorbable polyglycolic acid. The calf has unevenly recovered on the 20th-day
post-operation. The present case report discusses the successful management of umbilical hernia in the calf.
Calf; Herniorrhaphy; Overlapping mattress suture; Umbilical hernia.
Nanoparticles are small and have a large surface-to-volume ratio, which gives them phenomenal, unique features. It is an emerging, multidisciplinary field that frequently employs new techniques and tools from diverse disciplines, including biology, engineering, chemistry, and medicine. Nanotechnology entities help to improve the solubility, absorbability, bioavailability, and half-life of conventional natural products. Nano-applications are used in poultry and animal production systems using available tools and techniques without affecting animal health and welfare. Nanotechnology is a smart technology in the field of biomedical engineering used for the diagnosis and treatment of different poultry diseases. This technology provides better solutions for
various applications and poultry production that can help in reducing costs and improving the final product quality. Even though nanotechnology is one of the main novelties which have already been applied in poultry and other different areas, it is still in the initial stages of its development and it hampers the environment, animal, and people’s health. Therefore, wide hazard assessments should be conducted to ensure the safety of the nanoproducts before making them immediate implementation for poultry/animal/or human use.
Application; Health; Nanotechnology; Poultry; Production.
Reproduction is one of the key pillars of production in many herds and individual animals. In female animals, reproduction can be affected by uterine diseases including metritis and endometritis. The objective of this review is to understand metritis and endometritis, diagnosis and treatment approaches, and the economic impact of uterine inflammations. Metritis is inflammation of the wall of the uterus, whereas endometritis is inflammation of the functional lining of the uterus, called the endometrium. Clinically, they are characterized by an enlarged uterus containing a watery red-brown fluid to viscous off-white purulent uterine discharge, which often has a fetid odor within 10 to 14-days after postpartum period in clinical metritis whereas clinical endometritis can also be observed its clinical signs after 21-days postpartum period. The risk factors for the occurrence of clinical metritis and endometritis include extrinsic factors include calving season and nutrition whereas intrinsic factors include retained fetal membrane (RFM), dystocia, metabolic disturbance, negative energy balance (NEB) and other non-specific diseases. These factors disturbing the normal physiology and weaken the immune system of dairy cattle. The factors favor the multiplication of pathogenic bacteria and cause inflammation of the uterus and results in metritis and endometritis. This result in increased conception interval increase the number of inseminations, loss of milk and meat production, marked drop in fertility and increase the cost of treatment. Clinical metritis and endometritis can be diagnosed by clinical symptoms and cytological examinations. Clinical metritis and endometritis can be treated by anti-inflammatory drugs flunixin meglumine, antibiotics (pens-trip and long-acting oxytetracycline), intrauterine infusion by using saline or iodine tincture solutions. Clinical metritis and endometritis are the most frequent uterine disorders in dairy cows causing decreased fertility leading to high economic losses. Therefore, management of these production diseases can be achieved by early diagnosis and treatment, supplementation of balanced feed containing minerals, vitamins, appropriate proteins and carbohydrates, good quality management during and after calving of the female animals.
Diagnosis; Dairy; Disease; Clinical; Endometritis; Metritis; Risk factors; Therapeutics.
LPS: Lipopolysaccharide; NEB: Negative energy balance; NSAIDs: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs;
PGF2α: Prostaglandin F2 alpha; PMNs: Polymorpho neutrophil; RFM: Retained fetal membrane.