Organic livestock farming is a useful strategy to overcome the challenges of the agricultural sector like sustainability, food security, and food safety while matching with a high status of animal welfare, care for the environment, restricted use of medical drugs, growth promoters, synthetic fertilizer and the production of healthy food products without drug residues. Furthermore, organic livestock farming could also be an interesting strategy for the eternal rural development issue and solution for the farms’ decreasing profitability. The regulation of organic animal production is comprehensive and affected by different aspects such as feeding, housing, breeding, health care, and medical treatment. In contrast to conventional production systems, animals under organic livestock production are allowed a larger housing area, have obligatory straw bedding, fed organic feed, and roughage. The animal feed is a strong determinant of the fatty acid composition of the milk, egg or meat. In relation to animal health and welfare, the application of breed selection, good management, nutrition, and husbandry plays a greater role in disease prevention and good animal welfare. Now-a-days, antimicrobial resistance is a global public health issue and a threat to the modern health care system which is recognized by many international health organizations. Accordingly, over the last few years, the demand for organic products and availability in the market has been increased and made significant development in the economy. Several people have started to consider organic food instead of conventional food because it is healthier and less prone to the impact of chemical residues. Consequently, awareness creation and encouraging the importance of organic products for customers is important for the development of organic production.
Conventional production; Organic market; Organic production; Public health.
Prolonged pregnancy is defined as a pregnancy that lasts for more than 294-days compared with term gestation which is between 260 and 293-days. This case report was prepared with the aim of describing and documenting the surgical procedures, techniques of cesarean section and its outcome on eight-years-old crossbred cow that was referred to the veterinary hospital, Mekelle University from a field; Edaga Hamus Veterinary Clinic. According to the owner’s history, the cow was presented to the clinic with an extended gestational period over 345-days than anticipated according to their own record. Thus, based on the history and clinical findings, the case was diagnosed as prolonged pregnancy. After aseptic preparation of the surgical site, stabilizing the animal and locally desensitizing the incision area; a vertical skin incision with a distance of approximately (~40 cm wide) on the left flank region approximately (~10 cm) below the lumbar transverse process. After the incision of the abdominal muscles and uterus, the non-viable and abnormally oversized calf was taken out with the help of an assistant. Moreover, the uterus was filled with excess and abnormal dark brown colored blood and was properly drained, washed with sterile isotonic saline solution. The uterus was closed using a double layer of Utrecht suturing pattern whereas the peritoneum and abdominal muscles were separately closed with a continuous lockstitch pattern and simple interrupted pattern using 2-0 size sterile absorbable polyglycolic acid, respectively. After that, the skin was closed using silk 2-0 size in a horizontal interrupted mattress. Lastly, with proper antibiotic follow-up, dressing and cleaning of the surgical site, the cow was successfully recovered after two months.
The objective of this study was to assess the major welfare problems in working donkeys in Hosaena district, Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia.
Methods and Materials
A total of 318 male and 76 female working donkeys were randomly selected using a cross-sectional study from November 2015 to April 2016.
According to the current investigation, 70% of donkeys were used for draught and 30% were used for pack type of work. All females (100%) were used for packing purpose, whereas 86.8% of male donkeys were used for draught purpose. Overall, 41.6% of donkeys had a poor body condition in all age groups, whereas most donkeys (44.3%) under the age group less than 5-years were having poor conditions. Regarding wound on the skin, a higher proportion (82.2%) of back lesions were observed in pack donkeys whereas lip lesions were observed in 87.7% of draught donkeys. Besides, the welfare problem was observed in 28.9% of working donkeys due to overloading. A significant association (p<0.01) was found between the duration of working hours of donkey and poor body condition. Out of the interviewed, the majority of animal owners (76.4%) had one donkey.
The assessment showed that working donkeys in the present study area were experiencing multiple welfare problems. Accordingly, awareness creation through mass education, training and extension service should be promoted in the study area in order to ensure better donkey welfare and productivity.
Assessment; Ethiopia; Hosaena; Welfare of working donkey.
A Holstein Friesian (HF) crossbred dairy cow of 5-years-old and 38.5-weeks pregnant was presented to the Veterinary Hospital of College of Veterinary Science, Mekelle University with a history of repeated prolapse since last 10-days. Upon clinical examination, the case was confirmed as prepartum cervico-vaginal prolapse due to excess labor and straining to deliver the fetus. After caesarean section, the cow was restrained on sternal recumbency and the prolapsed mass was made aseptic by washing with a 2% potassium permanganate solution and was repositioned into the pelvic cavity. The cow was kept on fluid therapy (stat), antiinflammatory and antibiotic for three successive days. A modified Buhner’s technique, using infusion set tube as suture was to keep the prolapsed tissue in position to prevent the recurrence and the cow had an uneventful recovery. A successful management of recurrent prepartum cervico-vaginal prolapse using modified Buhner’s suture after caesarean section in a crossbred Holstein Friesian dairy cow is discussed.