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Tail docking is usually performed on those dogs whose tail or associated structures have been injured. A two-year-old male dog was presented Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH) with complain of injury on the tail due to bite by another dog. The injured site of the tail was contaminated with the debris on presentation and the dog was in severe pain. Amputation of the tail at the level above the injury site of the tail was taken. Care for surgery, oxytetracycline wound spray was applied on the incision site of the tail; Pen Strep and Meloxicam were given for three-days. The suture material was removed 10th-day post-surgery and the tail stump healed uneventfully. Hence, tail amputation is the best option of treatment for severing traumatic tail and successful management of the injured tail was presented in the present case report.
Dog; Injured tail; Cosmetic tail docking.
Equines play a crucial role in the Ethiopian economy; however, their welfare is extremely poor. Wounds, eye problems, lameness, hoof problems, parasites, and poor body condition were the most dominant welfare issues identified from different part of the country.
The objective of this study was to assess the socio-economic importance and constraints of equines in and around Debre Berhan town, North Shewa Zone of the Amhara region, Central Ethiopia.
Material and Methods
A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was carried from November 2016 to April 2017 and a total of 150 equine owners from the three districts namely Debre Berhan (97), Basonaworana (41), and Chacha districts (12) were interviewed during the study period.
Accordingly, 66 (44%) and 46 (30.67%) of respondents use their equines for packing and carting. Besides, equines were also used for other social activities such as a funeral (2%), marriage (5.33%), religious ceremonies (23.33%), and mixed uses (69.34%). Diseases (46.67%), feed shortage (26%), water shortage (18%), and market unavailability of what (9.33%) were among the major constraints identified in the area. Moreover, gastrointestinal parasites (30%), back sore (16.67%), lameness (21.33%), colic (12%), and other diseases (20%) were the major health constraints of working equines in the study area.
The welfare and management of working equines in the study sites need more close attention and should be improved. Awareness creation through training in the welfare problems of equines is advantageous to fully exploit these animals.
A three-months-old Holstein Friesian crossbred calf weighing 56 kg was presented to Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Mekelle University, Ethiopia with a history of swelling at the umbilical region from birth since last few months. Clinical examination revealed
umbilical hernia with a hernial ring of 3 fingers breadth. The case was handled surgically by means of herniorrhaphy using overlapping mattress suture techniques and synthetic absorbable polyglycolic acid. The calf has unevenly recovered on the 20th-day
post-operation. The present case report discusses the successful management of umbilical hernia in the calf.
Calf; Herniorrhaphy; Overlapping mattress suture; Umbilical hernia.
Nanoparticles are small and have a large surface-to-volume ratio, which gives them phenomenal, unique features. It is an emerging, multidisciplinary field that frequently employs new techniques and tools from diverse disciplines, including biology, engineering, chemistry, and medicine. Nanotechnology entities help to improve the solubility, absorbability, bioavailability, and half-life of conventional natural products. Nano-applications are used in poultry and animal production systems using available tools and techniques without affecting animal health and welfare. Nanotechnology is a smart technology in the field of biomedical engineering used for the diagnosis and treatment of different poultry diseases. This technology provides better solutions for
various applications and poultry production that can help in reducing costs and improving the final product quality. Even though nanotechnology is one of the main novelties which have already been applied in poultry and other different areas, it is still in the initial stages of its development and it hampers the environment, animal, and people’s health. Therefore, wide hazard assessments should be conducted to ensure the safety of the nanoproducts before making them immediate implementation for poultry/animal/or human use.
Application; Health; Nanotechnology; Poultry; Production.
Organic livestock farming is a useful strategy to overcome the challenges of the agricultural sector like sustainability, food security, and food safety while matching with a high status of animal welfare, care for the environment, restricted use of medical drugs, growth promoters, synthetic fertilizer and the production of healthy food products without drug residues. Furthermore, organic livestock farming could also be an interesting strategy for the eternal rural development issue and solution for the farms’ decreasing profitability. The regulation of organic animal production is comprehensive and affected by different aspects such as feeding, housing, breeding, health care, and medical treatment. In contrast to conventional production systems, animals under organic livestock production are allowed a larger housing area, have obligatory straw bedding, fed organic feed, and roughage. The animal feed is a strong determinant of the fatty acid composition of the milk, egg or meat. In relation to animal health and welfare, the application of breed selection, good management, nutrition, and husbandry plays a greater role in disease prevention and good animal welfare. Now-a-days, antimicrobial resistance is a global public health issue and a threat to the modern health care system which is recognized by many international health organizations. Accordingly, over the last few years, the demand for organic products and availability in the market has been increased and made significant development in the economy. Several people have started to consider organic food instead of conventional food because it is healthier and less prone to the impact of chemical residues. Consequently, awareness creation and encouraging the importance of organic products for customers is important for the development of organic production.
Conventional production; Organic market; Organic production; Public health.
Prolonged pregnancy is defined as a pregnancy that lasts for more than 294-days compared with term gestation which is between 260 and 293-days. This case report was prepared with the aim of describing and documenting the surgical procedures, techniques of cesarean section and its outcome on eight-years-old crossbred cow that was referred to the veterinary hospital, Mekelle University from a field; Edaga Hamus Veterinary Clinic. According to the owner’s history, the cow was presented to the clinic with an extended gestational period over 345-days than anticipated according to their own record. Thus, based on the history and clinical findings, the case was diagnosed as prolonged pregnancy. After aseptic preparation of the surgical site, stabilizing the animal and locally desensitizing the incision area; a vertical skin incision with a distance of approximately (~40 cm wide) on the left flank region approximately (~10 cm) below the lumbar transverse process. After the incision of the abdominal muscles and uterus, the non-viable and abnormally oversized calf was taken out with the help of an assistant. Moreover, the uterus was filled with excess and abnormal dark brown colored blood and was properly drained, washed with sterile isotonic saline solution. The uterus was closed using a double layer of Utrecht suturing pattern whereas the peritoneum and abdominal muscles were separately closed with a continuous lockstitch pattern and simple interrupted pattern using 2-0 size sterile absorbable polyglycolic acid, respectively. After that, the skin was closed using silk 2-0 size in a horizontal interrupted mattress. Lastly, with proper antibiotic follow-up, dressing and cleaning of the surgical site, the cow was successfully recovered after two months.
Dairy cow; Caesarean section; Prolonged pregnancy.
The objective of this study was to assess the major welfare problems in working donkeys in Hosaena district, Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia.
Methods and Materials
A total of 318 male and 76 female working donkeys were randomly selected using a cross-sectional study from November 2015 to April 2016.
According to the current investigation, 70% of donkeys were used for draught and 30% were used for pack type of work. All females (100%) were used for packing purpose, whereas 86.8% of male donkeys were used for draught purpose. Overall, 41.6% of donkeys had a poor body condition in all age groups, whereas most donkeys (44.3%) under the age group less than 5-years were having poor conditions. Regarding wound on the skin, a higher proportion (82.2%) of back lesions were observed in pack donkeys whereas lip lesions were observed in 87.7% of draught donkeys. Besides, the welfare problem was observed in 28.9% of working donkeys due to overloading. A significant association (p<0.01) was found between the duration of working hours of donkey and poor body condition. Out of the interviewed, the majority of animal owners (76.4%) had one donkey.
The assessment showed that working donkeys in the present study area were experiencing multiple welfare problems. Accordingly, awareness creation through mass education, training and extension service should be promoted in the study area in order to ensure better donkey welfare and productivity.
Assessment; Ethiopia; Hosaena; Welfare of working donkey.
A Holstein Friesian (HF) crossbred dairy cow of 5-years-old and 38.5-weeks pregnant was presented to the Veterinary Hospital of College of Veterinary Science, Mekelle University with a history of repeated prolapse since last 10-days. Upon clinical examination, the case was confirmed as prepartum cervico-vaginal prolapse due to excess labor and straining to deliver the fetus. After caesarean section, the cow was restrained on sternal recumbency and the prolapsed mass was made aseptic by washing with a 2% potassium permanganate solution and was repositioned into the pelvic cavity. The cow was kept on fluid therapy (stat), antiinflammatory and antibiotic for three successive days. A modified Buhner’s technique, using infusion set tube as suture was to keep the prolapsed tissue in position to prevent the recurrence and the cow had an uneventful recovery. A successful management of recurrent prepartum cervico-vaginal prolapse using modified Buhner’s suture after caesarean section in a crossbred Holstein Friesian dairy cow is discussed.
Modified Buhner’s suture; Cervico-vaginal prolapse; Crossbred Holstein Friesian cow; Recurrence.
Dehorning or disbudding is the process of removing or stopping the growth of the horns and horn producing tissues after the horns have formed from the bud by different methods which can match to the size of the horn and age. The present case report is aimed to describe and document the surgical procedures, techniques of unilateral horn amputation and its outcome on six years old local breed cow that was referred to the veterinary teaching hospital (VTH), Addis Ababa University from nearby; Hiddi Veterinary Clinic. History stipulated as the cow was treated several times with antibiotics but didn’t respond as the condition was getting worse. Based on the history and clinical findings, the case was diagnosed as suppurative frontal sinusitis. After aseptic preparation of the surgical site, stabilizing the animal and locally desensitizing the incision area; an elliptical skin incision with a distance of approximately (~1 cm wide) around the base of a right horn was performed for successful removal of the corium. Then, skin edge was opposed to assist the skin contraction by using the silk 2-0 size in cross mattress suture pattern. Then the area was properly bandaged with elastic bandages and properly secured to the normal horn and admitted home. Finally, with regular dressing, bandaging and lavaging of the dehorned site, the cow was successfully recovered after two months.
Cow; Dehorning; Horn Injury.
Non-surgical sterilization technique in animals is an ancient practice and dates back to 7000 BC. Surgical castration in animals has been applied for centuries to control the animal population, advance genetic selection, improve calmness of aggressive animals and mainly to ensure and selectively provide high-quality meat production for human consumption. An ideal method of castration should cause permanent block to spermatogenesis and inhibit androgenetic enzymes with low-cost of treatment and doesn’t affect the welfare of the animal. Even if operative methods are the main methods of castration, hormonal castration and chemical castration are also an alternative and equivalent method of sterilization. Over the past years, non-surgical sterilization has found application in male dogs, cats, monkeys, goats, bulls, hamsters and rabbits. Calcium chloride, lactic acid, sodium chloride, chlorhexidine, formalin, zinc tannate, zinc gluconate, glycerol, glucose, ethanol and silver nitrate are commonly used in chemical
castration. After intratesticular application, degeneration of seminiferous tubules and Leydig cells, decrease in testosterone and sperm production, testicular atrophy is observed. In this review, the approaches of chemical castration were mentioned in different male animals.
Male animal; Non-surgical sterilization; Castration; Chemicals; Testicle.
Foodborne diseases are a public health threat which causes a large economic impact across the worldwide. Escherichia coli (E. coli), Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes), Salmonella species (S. species), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and many more other organisms are the leading causes of foodborne illness and death in the world. Increment of antibiotic resistance exhibited by the actions of microbial infectious agents has led to screening of several medicinal plants for their potential antimicrobial activity. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review on the medicinal value of Croton macrostachyus (C. macrostachyus) and Solanum incanum (S.incanum) against causative agents of foodborne disease. Antimicrobial compounds of medicinal plants differ from antibiotics as they have fewer side effects, better patient tolerance, relatively less expensive, acceptance due to a long history of use and being renewable in nature. There are so many medicinal plants used to treat foodborne diseases which associated with gastroenteritis in humans and animals, among plants S. incanum and C. macrostachyus are the common for treatment of foodborne diseases associated with diarrhea. S. incanum has different bioactive substances which have medicinal importance against skin diseases, abdominal pains, fever, stomachaches and indigestion, treatment of dandruff, wounds, sore throat, angina, ear inflammation, liver disorders, wart and ringworm and treatment of cow driosis, dermatophilosis, foot rot, pasteurellosis, black leg, fasciolosis and snake bite. Bioactive compounds which present in S. incanum are including alkaloids, steroids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, flavonoid and terpenoids. C. macrostachyus is medicinal plant which have bioactive compounds including terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, lignoids, proanthcyanidins, sesquiterpenoids and lupeol, saponnins, resins, crotepeoxide. C. macrostachyus have medicinal value in treatment of malaria, rabies, gonorrhea, wound, diarrhea, hepatitis, jaundice, abdominal pain, cancer, toothache, pneumonia, typhoidand gastrointestinal disorder. Which is also used as abortifacient and uterotonic to expel retained placenta. Therefore, S. incanum and C. Macrostachyus have different medicinal value against foodborne disease and drug-resistance infectious agents. However, an advanced study have not been conducted on the extract of pure bioactive compounds and toxicity analysis. Therefore, further studies should have to be conducted to extract pure compounds from these medicinal plants for pharmaceutics industry.
Bioactive substance; Drug resistance; Food borne disease; Infectious agent; Medicinal plants.
Probiotics are live microbial feed supplements, which have an effect on the host animal by means of enhancing its intestinal microbial balance. A probiotic is a culture of a single bacterial strain, or a mixture of different strains, with the aim of eliminating the colonization of pathogens in the gastrointestinal tract of poultry. The main sources of probiotics in poultry are strains of microorganisms such as Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Bacillus and fermented dairy products like yoghurt, cultured buttermilk and cheese. A good probiotic is characterized by its ability to exert a beneficial effect on a host, resistance to low pH and bile salts, adhere and colonizing of the intestinal epithelium, non-pathogenic to host and produces antimicrobial substances towards pathogens. It also boosts immune responses, improves the growth performance and productivity of poultry and increases the quality of meat and egg. Thus, probiotics are considered to fill the gap in the poultry industry due to diseases and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria as well as environmental conditions that cause serious problems and economic losses in many countries. With current consumer preferences tending toward purchasing products from livestock grown without antibiotics and feed additive, the ingredients in this review paper presented the beneficial applications probiotic may have in poultry production.
Antimicrobials; Microorganisms; Poultry production; Probiotics.
Brucella are intracellular bacteria that cause brucellosis, a chronic zoonotic disease. The genus of Brucella are subdivided into six species categorized by antigenic variation and primary preferred host and these include B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, B. ovis, B. canis and B. neotomae. The epidemiologies of the disease in livestock and humans, as well as appropriate preventive measures, are not well understood in developing countries. Materials excreted from the female genital tract acting as the main supply of organisms for transmission to other animals and human. Millions of individuals are at risk worldwide, especially in countries where infection in animals has not been brought under control, procedures for the heat treatment of milk, such as pasteurization are not routinely applied, and standards of hygiene in animal husbandry are low. A precise diagnosis of brucellosis is important for the control of the disease in animals and consequently in human. Molecular and serological techniques are important tools for diagnosis and epidemiologic studies, providing relevant information for identification of species and biotyping. The economic and public health impact of bucellosis remains particular concern and neglected in developing countries. The disease mainly hampers the productivity of small ruminant’s resulting infertility and increase the average inter-calving periods. One of the major gaps in our knowledge at present is the relative contribution of brucellosis on small ruminant and humans. In Ethiopia, no strategy is in place to control brucellosis. The most important approach to the control and prevent human of brucellosis in human and animal is the practice of one health approach. So knowing the status of small ruminant brucellosis in our country is therefore extremely important. Therefore, the aims of this review are; a) To highlight (snapshot) of brucellosis in the small ruminant; b) To show the seroprevalence status of small ruminant brucellosis in Ethiopia perspective; c)To highlight possible risk factor and its economic importance.
Small ruminants; Brucellosis; Sheeps; Goats, Ethiopia.
ASS: Agricultural Sample Survey; CFSPH: Center for Food Security and Public Health; CFT: Complement Fixation Test; CSA: Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia; ELISA: Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay; FAO: Food and Agricultural Organization; IBM: Interim Brucellosis Manual; Ig: Immunoglobulin; ILCA: International Livestock Center for Africa; MoARD: Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development; MZN: Modified Ziehl-Neelsen; NVI: National Veterinary Institute; OIE: Office International de Epizootics; RBPT: Rose Bengal Plate Test; WHO: World Health Organization; I-ELISA: Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay.
Department of Veterinary Sciences
University of Messina
Polo Universitario dell Annunziata, 98168 Messina ME, Italy
Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences
Feinberg school of Medicine
303 E Chicago Ave, Chicago, IL 60611, USA