Volume 4, Issue 1

  • 2019, June

    original research

    Canine Urolithiasis and Concurrent Urinary Bladder Abnormalities: Symptoms, Haematology, Urinalysis and Comparative Radiographic and Ultrasonographic DiagnosisOpen Access

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    Abstract [+]

    Background
    Urocystoliths are difficult to palpate and physical examination findings, complete blood cell count (CBC) and serum biochemical analysis are usually normal and the clinical signs are not definitive. Thus diagnostic imaging is a crucial tool required to confirm the diagnosis of urolithiasis in dogs presented with non-specific clinical signs of urogenital affection.

    Aim
    The aim of this study was to compare the capability of radiography and ultrasonography in detecting uroliths and concurrent urinary system abnormalities and to evaluate clinical, haematological and urinalysis findings of dogs affected with urolithiasis during the presentation.

    Methods
    Findings of signalment, history, physical and laboratory examination of blood and urine were performed and recorded. All dogs presented with complete or partial urinary obstruction, haematuria and renal failure were subjected to both radiographic and ultrasonographic evaluation. Uroliths were retrieved by a cystotomy, urethrotomy, and at necropsy from kidney failure cases confirming urolithiasis.

    Results
    The result revealed occult clinical haematuria in 56.5%, microscopic haematuria in 78.3% and dysuria/anuria in 34.8% of the affected dogs. Crystalluria is detected in seven (30.4%) of urolithiasis affected dogs. The total leukocyte count was significantly elevated (p≤0.05) in partially and completely obstructed dogs. Radiography diagnosed 19 of 23 urolithiasis cases in the urinary bladder (UB), 2 of 2 in the kidney and 12 of 13 in the urethra while ultrasonography diagnosed 17 of 23 urolithiasis cases in the UB and one in the urethra. From a total of 15 dogs presented with either neoplastic growth and/or cystitis concurrent with urolithiasis, ultrasound detected six while pneumocystogrpahy detected only one.

    Conclusion
    The study showed haematuria as the leading clinical sign of urolithiasis. Detection of urolithiasis and concurrent cystitis and/or urinary bladder growth increases when ultrasonography and radiography were employed together.


  • 2019, August

    review

    Factors Affecting Rumen Microbial Protein Synthesis: A ReviewOpen Access

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    Abstract [+]

    There is a diversified microbial ecosystem in the rumen for efficient utilization of diet by providing essential nutrient to their host. But there are different factors affecting rumen microbial protein synthesis which are physical factors, chemical factors, dietary factors, biological factors and endogenous factors. Among the details of factors, dietary factors and ruminal pH are the dominant factors influencing rumen microbial protein production. The effects of some dietary factors, on the amount and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis, are discussed in this review. Specifically, these factors include forage quality diets, level of feed and types of feed. It seemed that diets containing a mixture of forages and concentrates increase the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis because of an improved rumen environment for the growth of more diverse bacterial species. This review describes physical and chemical factors which include: pH and buffer system, oxygen concentration, rumen outflow rate and synchronized release of nitrogen and energy from the diet, a nitrogen compound, energy spilling, vitamins and minerals and antimicrobials chemicals, respectively. Age, species, physiological status, sex, and stress are among endogenous factors that mostly affect microbial protein synthesis of a ruminant. Bacteriophages, protozoa predation and bacterial lysis are biological factors affecting the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis. All these factors have a direct effect on the synthesis of microbial protein in the rumen. Therefore, the cumulative effects of the above factors are resulted in the depopulation of rumen microflora and finally reduction of animal product. So, improvement in quantitative aspect of microbial protein synthesis solves many problems from simple to complex so that, the quantitative aspect of rumen microbial biomass are invaluable for health and productivity of ruminants than qualitative aspect hence, maintain health rumen ecosystem means having healthy ruminant.

    Keywords

    Rumen; pouvoir hydrogène (pH); Microbial protein; Rumen ecosystem; Ruminant; Rumen microflora; Nutrient; Haematological parameters reference ranges; Healthy status.

    Abbreviations

    MBP: Microbial protein; MCP: Microbial crude protein; NDF: Neutral detergent fiber; NPN: Non-protein pitrogen; NSC: Nonstructural carbohydrate; OM: Organic matter; OMTDR: Organic matter truly digested in rumen; RDP: Rumen degradable protein; RUP: Rumen undegradable protein; SCFA: Short chain fatty acid; TDN: Total digestible nutrient; VFA: Volatile fatty acid; ATP: Adenosine Tri-phosphate; CP: Crude protein; CS: Concentrate supplementation; DM: Dry matter; DOMI: Dry organic matter intake; EMPS: Efficiency of microbial protein synthesis; FOM: Fermented organic matter.


  • 2019, September

    original research

    Prevalence of Major Gastrointestinal Tract Parasite of Cattle at Municipal Abattoir of Jimma Town, Oromia, South Western EthiopiaOpen Access

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    Aim

    The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of major gastrointestinal tract (GIT) parasite of cattle’s and associated major risk factor at Jimma municipal abattoir.

    Method

    A cross-sectional study with a simple random sampling method was conducted from November, 2018 to April, 2019.

    Result

    Based on the carpological examination, from 400 animals that were presented for slaughter at Jimma municipal abattoir, 46.8% (187) of animals have at least one GIT parasite. The study detected five genera of GIT parasite which were Strongyle-type, Trichuris spp., Monezia spp., Paramphistomum spp. and Eimeria spp. with prevalence of 28.9% (54), 4.8% (9), 3.2% (6), 38.5% (72) and 13.4% (25), respectively while mixed parasites has 11.2% (21) of prevalence. The diversity of those mixed parasite were Strongyle type with Paramphistomum spp., aramphistomum spp. with Eimeria spp., Eimeria spp. with Trichuris spp., Strongyle spp. with Monezia spp., Paramphistomum spp with Monezia spp,, Strongyle type with Emeria spp. and Paramphistomum spp. with Trichuris spp. with the prevalence of 42.9%, 14.3%, 14.3%, 9.5%, 14.3%, 23.8% and 10.0% respectively. The prevalence of gastrointestinal

    parasite based on origin of the study animals was recorded and showed statistically significant difference with p-value of 0.001 (p≤0.05) and the prevalence was highest in Seka Chekorsa and followed by Kersa, Mena, Oma Nada and Dedo in decreasing order. The risk factor related to the age showed statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in which GIT parasite has highest prevalence in young and least in old and moderate in adult cattle. This study showed that infection prevalence was highest in animal with poor body condition followed by medium and good body condition scores and difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). In addition, the difference between the season also recorded and found statistically significant (p<0.05).

    Conclusion

    The finding showed that good management and strategic anthelmintic treatment need to be applied in the area to reduce the

    prevalence of the GIT parasites of cattle and their risk factor to lessen economic loss caused by the parasite.

    Keywords

    Abattoir; Carpological examination; GIT parasite; Jimma.

    Abbreviations

    ELISA: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; GDP: Gross domestic product; GIT: Gastrointestinal tract; Spp: Species; BW: Body weight.