Culling is defined as the departure of cows from the herd because of sale, slaughter, salvage, or death. Culling is an important cost for dairy farms. At the same time, culling is a way to increase herd productivity and profitability, as keeping diseased and unproductive cows might result in lower herd milk production and deteriorated reproduction. In order to maximize profitability, the proportion of voluntary culling (selling for dairy purposes or culling due to low production) should be highest among the total culling rate. Previous studies indicate an ascending trend in the proportion of involuntary culling. This observational study used registry data of all cows from herds with ≥5 cow-years in 2016-2017.
This study was conducted to assess the reason for culling a dairy cow and its association with age at culling in and around Mekelle using a structured questioner format and direct observation. Visits were performed to each farm to collect data directly from owners or animal attendants and using direct observation.
Materials and Methods
The cross-sectional study was conducted in and around Mekelle city dairy farm from November, 2016 to April, 2017.
The most common causes of culling were disease and economic reasons. The most common causes of voluntary culling were economic reasons (17.39), low milk yield (20.29%), and aging (8.70%). The common causes of involuntary culling were diseases (34.78%), injury (7.25%), and infertility (5.80%). In this study rates of culling increased with parity. The highest rate of culling was
in animals between parity 2 and 5, increased from (14.49%) to (21.74%) and slightly decreased from parity 6 to 7, i.e. (13.04)% to (8.70)%, respectively. The highest rates of culling were between 3 and 5-years, (17.39)% and (23.19)%, respectively.
This study indicated animals were culled at premature age because of involuntary culling, which is economically not feasible, diseases were the most common causes of involuntary culling and voluntary culling was the most type of culling in dairy cattle farms and animals mostly culled for decreased production and economic reasons.
Culling; Dairy cattle; Milk yield; Parity.
Cestode infestations in animals are the most important parasite of livestock and humans because most of these parasites are zoonotic causing cysticercosis and hydatidosis in man and it causes economic and production losses in livestock. Diagnosis of Taenia Spp by microscopic observation lack sensitivity and specificity and detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
technique form cross-reaction. The molecular diagnostic can be best to detect in adult and larval stage in definitive and intermediate host based on the amplification of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of target gene with the primer using a different technique of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) such as multiplex PCR. Conventional PCR, real-time PCR, nested PCR, and PCR-restriction
fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) are highly sensitive for the diagnosis of cestode and metacestode. Those diagnoses are used for differentiation of Taenia species and differentiation of Taenia and Echinococcus species. As compared to other diagnostic techniques most molecular methods have higher sensitivity and specificity but due to the relatively higher cost, few are commercially
available. Most of the molecular diagnostic tests developed to date are generally applicable for laboratory research purposes. The developments in the genomic and proteomic analysis should be used for further understanding of parasite-animal host interaction to find additional targets for diagnosis.
Cestode; Molecular test; Metacestode; Veterinary importance.
Bp: Base pair; DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid; ELISA: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; gDNA: Genomic DNA; AMP: Loop-mediated isothermal amplification; NAD: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; NADH: reduced form of NAD; PCR-REA: Polymerase chain reaction restriction enzyme analysis; PCR: Polymerase chain reaction; RFLP: Restriction fragment length polymorphism; rRNA: Ribosomal ribonucleic acid; REA: Restriction enzyme analysis; SSCP: Single-strand conformation polymorphism.
This study was devised to be conducted to determine the prevalence and identify the major gastrointestinal nematode parasites based on fecal examination.
A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and associated factors with ovine gastrointestinal nematode infestation by fecal examination of 384 sheep from Wayu Tuka and Diga district, Eastern Oromia regional state.
Out of the total 384 sampled sheep, 169 (44.0%) had been infected with gastrointestinal nematode parasite. Haemonchus species were the most frequently (20.8%) recovered nematode eggs followed by Trichostrongylus (13.0%) and Nematodirus (10.2%). There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in prevalence between age groups and sex. Sheep with poor body condition had a significantly
higher prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode parasite (p<0.05) than those sheep in moderate or good body condition. There was no significant association between the gastrointestinal nematode infection in animals of different ages and sex groups.
The study shows that the gastrointestinal nematode parasite was a major important health problem and impact on the production of sheep in the study area. Therefore, a detailed study should be conducted to identify the parasite at the species level and special consideration should be taken on the management of sheep in poor body condition to reduce the burden of gastrointestinal nematodes.
Diga; Eastern Wollega; Gastrointestinal nematodes; Prevalence; Sheep; Wayu Tuka.
Dogs and cats are belonging to canine and feline family respectively. The liver is the largest gland in the body and is located in the cranial abdomen between 3rd and 4th ribs in dogs and cats. This review is mainly focused on: to understand the anatomy and physiology of liver, the liver diseases pathophysiology, to diagnose the liver diseases, managemental and ameliorative methods of liver diseases. The dual blood supply to the liver is hepatic artery and portal vein. The function of liver includes the regulation of digestion and metabolism, the synthesis of hormones and proteins, immune response and filtering of toxins from the blood stream. Any problem that affects the liver is liver disease. Inflammation of liver is hepatitis. Hepatitis caused by infectious, non-infectious, auto-immune and reactive. It can be acute and chronic. The most encountered liver diseases in dogs and cats are hepticlipidosis, cholangiohepatitis, portosystemicshunt, cholelithiasis, choledocholithiasis, cholecystitis, pneumobilia and hepatic neoplsia. The clinical symptoms of liver diseases include jaundice, hepatic encephalopathy, gastro intestinal disorders and nonspecific signs include polyuria/polydipisia. The liver disease diagnosed based on history, liver function tests, medical imaging. The latest imaging procedures are endoscopic retrograde cholagio pancreatography (ERCP) and computed tomography (CT). For confirmatory diagnosis liver biopsy and histopathological interpretation is required. Therefore, based on diagnosis appropriate treatment should be selected: bile stasis is treated urodeoxycholic acid (URDA), fluid therapy include sugar and salt solution for
replacement fluid loss, gastrointestinal protectors include ranitidine, cimitidine and lactulose, albumin to treat hypoalbuminimia, antioxidant for scavenging free radicals include vitamin E, Selenium, S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe), diuretic fursimid for treatment of ascites and supplementation low protein diets. This laparoscopic technique for removal of gallstones and endoscopic retrograde cholagiopancreatography (ERCP) to treat gall stones on bile ducts and to widen the slipped ducts and liver transplantation for cirrhotic dogs and cats. Early accurate diagnosis and managing any predisposing factors that affects the health of dogs and cats are important for controlling the liver diseases.
Canine; Feline; Liver disease; Hepatitis; Hepatocyte; Kuppfer cells.
Trypanosomosis is disease caused by unicellular parasites, trypanosome, found blood and other tissue of vertebrates; including livestock, wild life and people. It is a serious disease in domestic livestock causing a significant negative impact on food production and economic growth in many parts of the world, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Its epidemiology and impact on livestock production are largely determined by the prevalence and distribution of the disease and its vectors in the affected area.
To assess the host related risk factors of bovine trypanosomosis and apparent density of tsetse flies in four peasant associations of the study area. In relation to the host risk factors, the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis was highest in those animals with poor body condition.
The overall 5.32% prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis was recorded from 432 blood sample collected from randomly selected animals using Buffy coat method. Trypanosoma congolense was the dominant species 14 (60.87%). However, it was not statistically significant between sex of animals (p>0.05). The mean packed cell volume (PCV) value of the infected animals was lower
(20.65%±2.85) compared to non-infected animals (25.74%±4.80). There was statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in the PCV values of infected and non-infected animals. Moreover, animals with different body condition exhibited statistically significant variation (p<0.05) in the prevalence of trypanosomosis. Overall an apparent density of the flies was 2.42 f/t/d by using mono-pyramidal and biconical traps. It indicated that, G. morsitance submorsitance, G. pallidipes and G. tachinoides were tsetse flies species caught.
Finally, this work showed that trypanosomosis is an important disease affecting the health and productivity of cattle in the district. Hence, due attention should be given to this sector so as to improve livestock production and agricultural development in the area.
Halu; PCV; Trypanosomosis; Prevalence.
The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of hydatidosis, to identify the association between expected risk factors and occurrence of the disease, to investigate economic importance and to evaluate fertility and viability of the hydatid cyst in cattle slaughtered at the abattoir.
Materials and Methods
A cross-sectional study, which involves both ante-mortem and post-mortem examination, was conducted at Nekemte municipal abattoir from November 2015 to March 2016.
A total of 355 local cattle breed was randomly sampled and examined for the presence of hydatid cysts in the organs of the animals using the standard meat inspection procedures, 66 (18.6%) animals were found harboring hydatid cysts. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference (p<0.05) between the prevalence of bovine hydatidosis in all risk factors with exception of sex of the animals. Among 207 hydatid cysts recorded, 93 (44.92%) were from lungs, 65 (31.40%) from livers, 4 (1.93%) from heart, 3 (1.44%) from kidney, 1 (0.48%) from spleen and 41 (19.8%) were in two organs from lung and liver. Fifty-seven (57) of these 207 cysts were randomly selected and subjected to fertility and viability test which revealed 19 (33.33%) as fertile, 25 (43.86 %) sterile and 13 (22.81%) calcified. Viability test proved 7 (12.28%) of 19 fertile cysts as viable and 12 (21.05%) of 19 fertile cysts as non-viable. Viability of cysts in different organs revealed that 5 (16.1%) and 2 (10%) of cysts from lungs and liver, respectively. The estimated financial loss during the study period both due to condemnation of organs and an in direct carcass weight loss from hydatidosis was 2,190,143.52 ETB.
The results of this study revealed that bovine hydatidosis was an economically important disease of cattle which need serious attention for prevention and control actions in and around Nekemte. Hence, establishment of well-equipped standardized abattoirs, prohibition of backyard slaughter, creation of public awareness, deworming and control of stray dogs are of paramount importance.
Abattoir; Cattle; Economic loss; Hydatidosis; Nekemte; Prevalence.
Pain is the distress feeling, most commonly encountered in diseases, which accompanies from an early age and it is one of the important aspects of determining the level of well-being of animals. Pain is more complex in animals and it can rather difficult to determine the seriousness and impact of painful events. Hence, we have to identify the signs of pain in animals consistent with indirect markers which involve behavioral, physiological, and at last clinical responses. Moreover, specifically, the behavioral changes related to pain will be together with the overall signs also species-specific and hardly recognizable especially for an inexperienced observer seemingly unimportant which makes pain assessment even more complicated. The veterinarians have an ethical responsibility to assist in alleviate the animal pain. Although most veterinarians accept the actual fact that animals feel pain, still, post-operative pain relief isn’t a routine practice in veterinary hospitals and clinics today the feeling and assessment of pain are subjective. The assessment of pain and also the documentation of the effectiveness of any interventions are fundamental principles of successful pain management. The most important aim is pain management while efforts are made to spot and treat the underlying disease and to reinforce healing and recovery. Adequate management of acute pain may additionally prevent the event of chronic pain.
Animal; Pain assessment; Pain; Pain management.
Department of Veterinary Sciences
University of Messina
Polo Universitario dell Annunziata, 98168 Messina ME, Italy
Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences
Feinberg school of Medicine
303 E Chicago Ave, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
Department of Veterinary Paraclinical Medicine
University of Gondar
College of Veterinary Medicine Animal Sciences