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Dehorning or disbudding is the process of removing or stopping the growth of the horns and horn producing tissues after the horns have formed from the bud by different methods which can match to the size of the horn and age. The present case report is aimed to describe and document the surgical procedures, techniques of unilateral horn amputation and its outcome on six years old local breed cow that was referred to the veterinary teaching hospital (VTH), Addis Ababa University from nearby; Hiddi Veterinary Clinic. History stipulated as the cow was treated several times with antibiotics but didn’t respond as the condition was getting worse. Based on the history and clinical findings, the case was diagnosed as suppurative frontal sinusitis. After aseptic preparation of the surgical site, stabilizing the animal and locally desensitizing the incision area; an elliptical skin incision with a distance of approximately (~1 cm wide) around the base of a right horn was performed for successful removal of the corium. Then, skin edge was opposed to assist the skin contraction by using the silk 2-0 size in cross mattress suture pattern. Then the area was properly bandaged with elastic bandages and properly secured to the normal horn and admitted home. Finally, with regular dressing, bandaging and lavaging of the dehorned site, the cow was successfully recovered after two months.
Cow; Dehorning; Horn Injury.
Non-surgical sterilization technique in animals is an ancient practice and dates back to 7000 BC. Surgical castration in animals has been applied for centuries to control the animal population, advance genetic selection, improve calmness of aggressive animals and mainly to ensure and selectively provide high-quality meat production for human consumption. An ideal method of castration should cause permanent block to spermatogenesis and inhibit androgenetic enzymes with low-cost of treatment and doesn’t affect the welfare of the animal. Even if operative methods are the main methods of castration, hormonal castration and chemical castration are also an alternative and equivalent method of sterilization. Over the past years, non-surgical sterilization has found application in male dogs, cats, monkeys, goats, bulls, hamsters and rabbits. Calcium chloride, lactic acid, sodium chloride, chlorhexidine, formalin, zinc tannate, zinc gluconate, glycerol, glucose, ethanol and silver nitrate are commonly used in chemical
castration. After intratesticular application, degeneration of seminiferous tubules and Leydig cells, decrease in testosterone and sperm production, testicular atrophy is observed. In this review, the approaches of chemical castration were mentioned in different male animals.
Male animal; Non-surgical sterilization; Castration; Chemicals; Testicle.
Foodborne diseases are a public health threat which causes a large economic impact across the worldwide. Escherichia coli (E. coli), Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes), Salmonella species (S. species), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and many more other organisms are the leading causes of foodborne illness and death in the world. Increment of antibiotic resistance exhibited by the actions of microbial infectious agents has led to screening of several medicinal plants for their potential antimicrobial activity. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review on the medicinal value of Croton macrostachyus (C. macrostachyus) and Solanum incanum (S.incanum) against causative agents of foodborne disease. Antimicrobial compounds of medicinal plants differ from antibiotics as they have fewer side effects, better patient tolerance, relatively less expensive, acceptance due to a long history of use and being renewable in nature. There are so many medicinal plants used to treat foodborne diseases which associated with gastroenteritis in humans and animals, among plants S. incanum and C. macrostachyus are the common for treatment of foodborne diseases associated with diarrhea. S. incanum has different bioactive substances which have medicinal importance against skin diseases, abdominal pains, fever, stomachaches and indigestion, treatment of dandruff, wounds, sore throat, angina, ear inflammation, liver disorders, wart and ringworm and treatment of cow driosis, dermatophilosis, foot rot, pasteurellosis, black leg, fasciolosis and snake bite. Bioactive compounds which present in S. incanum are including alkaloids, steroids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, flavonoid and terpenoids. C. macrostachyus is medicinal plant which have bioactive compounds including terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, lignoids, proanthcyanidins, sesquiterpenoids and lupeol, saponnins, resins, crotepeoxide. C. macrostachyus have medicinal value in treatment of malaria, rabies, gonorrhea, wound, diarrhea, hepatitis, jaundice, abdominal pain, cancer, toothache, pneumonia, typhoidand gastrointestinal disorder. Which is also used as abortifacient and uterotonic to expel retained placenta. Therefore, S. incanum and C. Macrostachyus have different medicinal value against foodborne disease and drug-resistance infectious agents. However, an advanced study have not been conducted on the extract of pure bioactive compounds and toxicity analysis. Therefore, further studies should have to be conducted to extract pure compounds from these medicinal plants for pharmaceutics industry.
Bioactive substance; Drug resistance; Food borne disease; Infectious agent; Medicinal plants.
Probiotics are live microbial feed supplements, which have an effect on the host animal by means of enhancing its intestinal microbial balance. A probiotic is a culture of a single bacterial strain, or a mixture of different strains, with the aim of eliminating the colonization of pathogens in the gastrointestinal tract of poultry. The main sources of probiotics in poultry are strains of microorganisms such as Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Bacillus and fermented dairy products like yoghurt, cultured buttermilk and cheese. A good probiotic is characterized by its ability to exert a beneficial effect on a host, resistance to low pH and bile salts, adhere and colonizing of the intestinal epithelium, non-pathogenic to host and produces antimicrobial substances towards pathogens. It also boosts immune responses, improves the growth performance and productivity of poultry and increases the quality of meat and egg. Thus, probiotics are considered to fill the gap in the poultry industry due to diseases and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria as well as environmental conditions that cause serious problems and economic losses in many countries. With current consumer preferences tending toward purchasing products from livestock grown without antibiotics and feed additive, the ingredients in this review paper presented the beneficial applications probiotic may have in poultry production.
Antimicrobials; Microorganisms; Poultry production; Probiotics.
Brucella are intracellular bacteria that cause brucellosis, a chronic zoonotic disease. The genus of Brucella are subdivided into six species categorized by antigenic variation and primary preferred host and these include B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, B. ovis, B. canis and B. neotomae. The epidemiologies of the disease in livestock and humans, as well as appropriate preventive measures, are not well understood in developing countries. Materials excreted from the female genital tract acting as the main supply of organisms for transmission to other animals and human. Millions of individuals are at risk worldwide, especially in countries where infection in animals has not been brought under control, procedures for the heat treatment of milk, such as pasteurization are not routinely applied, and standards of hygiene in animal husbandry are low. A precise diagnosis of brucellosis is important for the control of the disease in animals and consequently in human. Molecular and serological techniques are important tools for diagnosis and epidemiologic studies, providing relevant information for identification of species and biotyping. The economic and public health impact of bucellosis remains particular concern and neglected in developing countries. The disease mainly hampers the productivity of small ruminant’s resulting infertility and increase the average inter-calving periods. One of the major gaps in our knowledge at present is the relative contribution of brucellosis on small ruminant and humans. In Ethiopia, no strategy is in place to control brucellosis. The most important approach to the control and prevent human of brucellosis in human and animal is the practice of one health approach. So knowing the status of small ruminant brucellosis in our country is therefore extremely important. Therefore, the aims of this review are; a) To highlight (snapshot) of brucellosis in the small ruminant; b) To show the seroprevalence status of small ruminant brucellosis in Ethiopia perspective; c)To highlight possible risk factor and its economic importance.
Small ruminants; Brucellosis; Sheeps; Goats, Ethiopia.
ASS: Agricultural Sample Survey; CFSPH: Center for Food Security and Public Health; CFT: Complement Fixation Test; CSA: Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia; ELISA: Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay; FAO: Food and Agricultural Organization; IBM: Interim Brucellosis Manual; Ig: Immunoglobulin; ILCA: International Livestock Center for Africa; MoARD: Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development; MZN: Modified Ziehl-Neelsen; NVI: National Veterinary Institute; OIE: Office International de Epizootics; RBPT: Rose Bengal Plate Test; WHO: World Health Organization; I-ELISA: Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay.
Urocystoliths are difficult to palpate and physical examination findings, complete blood cell count (CBC) and serum biochemical analysis are usually normal and the clinical signs are not definitive. Thus diagnostic imaging is a crucial tool required to confirm the diagnosis of urolithiasis in dogs presented with non-specific clinical signs of urogenital affection.
The aim of this study was to compare the capability of radiography and ultrasonography in detecting uroliths and concurrent urinary system abnormalities and to evaluate clinical, haematological and urinalysis findings of dogs affected with urolithiasis during the presentation.
Findings of signalment, history, physical and laboratory examination of blood and urine were performed and recorded. All dogs presented with complete or partial urinary obstruction, haematuria and renal failure were subjected to both radiographic and ultrasonographic evaluation. Uroliths were retrieved by a cystotomy, urethrotomy, and at necropsy from kidney failure cases confirming urolithiasis.
The result revealed occult clinical haematuria in 56.5%, microscopic haematuria in 78.3% and dysuria/anuria in 34.8% of the affected dogs. Crystalluria is detected in seven (30.4%) of urolithiasis affected dogs. The total leukocyte count was significantly elevated (p≤0.05) in partially and completely obstructed dogs. Radiography diagnosed 19 of 23 urolithiasis cases in the urinary bladder (UB), 2 of 2 in the kidney and 12 of 13 in the urethra while ultrasonography diagnosed 17 of 23 urolithiasis cases in the UB and one in the urethra. From a total of 15 dogs presented with either neoplastic growth and/or cystitis concurrent with urolithiasis, ultrasound detected six while pneumocystogrpahy detected only one.
The study showed haematuria as the leading clinical sign of urolithiasis. Detection of urolithiasis and concurrent cystitis and/or urinary bladder growth increases when ultrasonography and radiography were employed together.
There is a diversified microbial ecosystem in the rumen for efficient utilization of diet by providing essential nutrient to their host. But there are different factors affecting rumen microbial protein synthesis which are physical factors, chemical factors, dietary factors, biological factors and endogenous factors. Among the details of factors, dietary factors and ruminal pH are the dominant factors influencing rumen microbial protein production. The effects of some dietary factors, on the amount and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis, are discussed in this review. Specifically, these factors include forage quality diets, level of feed and types of feed. It seemed that diets containing a mixture of forages and concentrates increase the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis because of an improved rumen environment for the growth of more diverse bacterial species. This review describes physical and chemical factors which include: pH and buffer system, oxygen concentration, rumen outflow rate and synchronized release of nitrogen and energy from the diet, a nitrogen compound, energy spilling, vitamins and minerals and antimicrobials chemicals, respectively. Age, species, physiological status, sex, and stress are among endogenous factors that mostly affect microbial protein synthesis of a ruminant. Bacteriophages, protozoa predation and bacterial lysis are biological factors affecting the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis. All these factors have a direct effect on the synthesis of microbial protein in the rumen. Therefore, the cumulative effects of the above factors are resulted in the depopulation of rumen microflora and finally reduction of animal product. So, improvement in quantitative aspect of microbial protein synthesis solves many problems from simple to complex so that, the quantitative aspect of rumen microbial biomass are invaluable for health and productivity of ruminants than qualitative aspect hence, maintain health rumen ecosystem means having healthy ruminant.
Rumen; pouvoir hydrogène (pH); Microbial protein; Rumen ecosystem; Ruminant; Rumen microflora; Nutrient; Haematological parameters reference ranges; Healthy status.
MBP: Microbial protein; MCP: Microbial crude protein; NDF: Neutral detergent fiber; NPN: Non-protein pitrogen; NSC: Nonstructural carbohydrate; OM: Organic matter; OMTDR: Organic matter truly digested in rumen; RDP: Rumen degradable protein; RUP: Rumen undegradable protein; SCFA: Short chain fatty acid; TDN: Total digestible nutrient; VFA: Volatile fatty acid; ATP: Adenosine Tri-phosphate; CP: Crude protein; CS: Concentrate supplementation; DM: Dry matter; DOMI: Dry organic matter intake; EMPS: Efficiency of microbial protein synthesis; FOM: Fermented organic matter.
The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of major gastrointestinal tract (GIT) parasite of cattle’s and associated major risk factor at Jimma municipal abattoir.
A cross-sectional study with a simple random sampling method was conducted from November, 2018 to April, 2019.
Based on the carpological examination, from 400 animals that were presented for slaughter at Jimma municipal abattoir, 46.8% (187) of animals have at least one GIT parasite. The study detected five genera of GIT parasite which were Strongyle-type, Trichuris spp., Monezia spp., Paramphistomum spp. and Eimeria spp. with prevalence of 28.9% (54), 4.8% (9), 3.2% (6), 38.5% (72) and 13.4% (25), respectively while mixed parasites has 11.2% (21) of prevalence. The diversity of those mixed parasite were Strongyle type with Paramphistomum spp., aramphistomum spp. with Eimeria spp., Eimeria spp. with Trichuris spp., Strongyle spp. with Monezia spp., Paramphistomum spp with Monezia spp,, Strongyle type with Emeria spp. and Paramphistomum spp. with Trichuris spp. with the prevalence of 42.9%, 14.3%, 14.3%, 9.5%, 14.3%, 23.8% and 10.0% respectively. The prevalence of gastrointestinal
parasite based on origin of the study animals was recorded and showed statistically significant difference with p-value of 0.001 (p≤0.05) and the prevalence was highest in Seka Chekorsa and followed by Kersa, Mena, Oma Nada and Dedo in decreasing order. The risk factor related to the age showed statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in which GIT parasite has highest prevalence in young and least in old and moderate in adult cattle. This study showed that infection prevalence was highest in animal with poor body condition followed by medium and good body condition scores and difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). In addition, the difference between the season also recorded and found statistically significant (p<0.05).
The finding showed that good management and strategic anthelmintic treatment need to be applied in the area to reduce the
prevalence of the GIT parasites of cattle and their risk factor to lessen economic loss caused by the parasite.
Abattoir; Carpological examination; GIT parasite; Jimma.
ELISA: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; GDP: Gross domestic product; GIT: Gastrointestinal tract; Spp: Species; BW: Body weight.
Department of Veterinary Sciences
University of Messina
Polo Universitario dell Annunziata, 98168 Messina ME, Italy
Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences
Feinberg school of Medicine
303 E Chicago Ave, Chicago, IL 60611, USA