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  • 2020, January

    short communication

    Recurrent Prepartum Cervico-Vaginal Prolapse in a Crossbred Holstein Friesian Dairy CowOpen Access

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    Abstract [+]

    A Holstein Friesian (HF) crossbred dairy cow of 5-years-old and 38.5-weeks pregnant was presented to the Veterinary Hospital of College of Veterinary Science, Mekelle University with a history of repeated prolapse since last 10-days. Upon clinical examination, the case was confirmed as prepartum cervico-vaginal prolapse due to excess labor and straining to deliver the fetus. After caesarean section, the cow was restrained on sternal recumbency and the prolapsed mass was made aseptic by washing with a 2% potassium permanganate solution and was repositioned into the pelvic cavity. The cow was kept on fluid therapy (stat), antiinflammatory and antibiotic for three successive days. A modified Buhner’s technique, using infusion set tube as suture was to keep the prolapsed tissue in position to prevent the recurrence and the cow had an uneventful recovery. A successful management of recurrent prepartum cervico-vaginal prolapse using modified Buhner’s suture after caesarean section in a crossbred Holstein Friesian dairy cow is discussed.

    Keywords

    Modified Buhner’s suture; Cervico-vaginal prolapse; Crossbred Holstein Friesian cow; Recurrence.


  • 2020, January

    original research

    Assessment of Welfare Problems on Working Donkeys in Hosaena District, Hadiya Zone, Southern EthiopiaOpen Access

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    Abstract [+]

    Aim

    The objective of this study was to assess the major welfare problems in working donkeys in Hosaena district, Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia.

    Methods and Materials

    A total of 318 male and 76 female working donkeys were randomly selected using a cross-sectional study from November 2015 to April 2016.

    Results

    According to the current investigation, 70% of donkeys were used for draught and 30% were used for pack type of work. All females (100%) were used for packing purpose, whereas 86.8% of male donkeys were used for draught purpose. Overall, 41.6% of donkeys had a poor body condition in all age groups, whereas most donkeys (44.3%) under the age group less than 5-years were having poor conditions. Regarding wound on the skin, a higher proportion (82.2%) of back lesions were observed in pack donkeys whereas lip lesions were observed in 87.7% of draught donkeys. Besides, the welfare problem was observed in 28.9% of working donkeys due to overloading. A significant association (p<0.01) was found between the duration of working hours of donkey and poor body condition. Out of the interviewed, the majority of animal owners (76.4%) had one donkey.

    Conclusion

    The assessment showed that working donkeys in the present study area were experiencing multiple welfare problems. Accordingly, awareness creation through mass education, training and extension service should be promoted in the study area in order to ensure better donkey welfare and productivity.

    Keywords

    Assessment; Ethiopia; Hosaena; Welfare of working donkey.


  • 2020, January

    case report

    Caesarean Operation in Cow due to Prolonged PregnancyOpen Access

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    Abstract [+]

    Prolonged pregnancy is defined as a pregnancy that lasts for more than 294-days compared with term gestation which is between 260 and 293-days. This case report was prepared with the aim of describing and documenting the surgical procedures, techniques of cesarean section and its outcome on eight-years-old crossbred cow that was referred to the veterinary hospital, Mekelle University from a field; Edaga Hamus Veterinary Clinic. According to the owner’s history, the cow was presented to the clinic with an extended gestational period over 345-days than anticipated according to their own record. Thus, based on the history and clinical findings, the case was diagnosed as prolonged pregnancy. After aseptic preparation of the surgical site, stabilizing the animal and locally desensitizing the incision area; a vertical skin incision with a distance of approximately (~40 cm wide) on the left flank region approximately (~10 cm) below the lumbar transverse process. After the incision of the abdominal muscles and uterus, the non-viable and abnormally oversized calf was taken out with the help of an assistant. Moreover, the uterus was filled with excess and abnormal dark brown colored blood and was properly drained, washed with sterile isotonic saline solution. The uterus was closed using a double layer of Utrecht suturing pattern whereas the peritoneum and abdominal muscles were separately closed with a continuous lockstitch pattern and simple interrupted pattern using 2-0 size sterile absorbable polyglycolic acid, respectively. After that, the skin was closed using silk 2-0 size in a horizontal interrupted mattress. Lastly, with proper antibiotic follow-up, dressing and cleaning of the surgical site, the cow was successfully recovered after two months.

    Keywords

    Dairy cow; Caesarean section; Prolonged pregnancy.


  • 2020, January

    review

    Organic Foods and Public Health Importance: A ReviewOpen Access

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    Abstract [+]

    Organic livestock farming is a useful strategy to overcome the challenges of the agricultural sector like sustainability, food security, and food safety while matching with a high status of animal welfare, care for the environment, restricted use of medical drugs, growth promoters, synthetic fertilizer and the production of healthy food products without drug residues. Furthermore, organic livestock farming could also be an interesting strategy for the eternal rural development issue and solution for the farms’ decreasing profitability. The regulation of organic animal production is comprehensive and affected by different aspects such as feeding, housing, breeding, health care, and medical treatment. In contrast to conventional production systems, animals under organic livestock production are allowed a larger housing area, have obligatory straw bedding, fed organic feed, and roughage. The animal feed is a strong determinant of the fatty acid composition of the milk, egg or meat. In relation to animal health and welfare, the application of breed selection, good management, nutrition, and husbandry plays a greater role in disease prevention and good animal welfare. Now-a-days, antimicrobial resistance is a global public health issue and a threat to the modern health care system which is recognized by many international health organizations. Accordingly, over the last few years, the demand for organic products and availability in the market has been increased and made significant development in the economy. Several people have started to consider organic food instead of conventional food because it is healthier and less prone to the impact of chemical residues. Consequently, awareness creation and encouraging the importance of organic products for customers is important for the development of organic production.

    Keywords

    Conventional production; Organic market; Organic production; Public health.


  • 2019, November

    review

    Review on Epidemiology and Economic Impact of Small Ruminant Brucellosis in Ethiopian PerspectiveOpen Access

    PDF410.50 KB 410.50 KB
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    Abstract [+]

    Brucella are intracellular bacteria that cause brucellosis, a chronic zoonotic disease. The genus of Brucella are subdivided into six species categorized by antigenic variation and primary preferred host and these include B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, B. ovis, B. canis and B. neotomae. The epidemiologies of the disease in livestock and humans, as well as appropriate preventive measures, are not well understood in developing countries. Materials excreted from the female genital tract acting as the main supply of organisms for transmission to other animals and human. Millions of individuals are at risk worldwide, especially in countries where infection in animals has not been brought under control, procedures for the heat treatment of milk, such as pasteurization are not routinely applied, and standards of hygiene in animal husbandry are low. A precise diagnosis of brucellosis is important for the control of the disease in animals and consequently in human. Molecular and serological techniques are important tools for diagnosis and epidemiologic studies, providing relevant information for identification of species and biotyping. The economic and public health impact of bucellosis remains particular concern and neglected in developing countries. The disease mainly hampers the productivity of small ruminant’s resulting infertility and increase the average inter-calving periods. One of the major gaps in our knowledge at present is the relative contribution of brucellosis on small ruminant and humans. In Ethiopia, no strategy is in place to control brucellosis. The most important approach to the control and prevent human of brucellosis in human and animal is the practice of one health approach. So knowing the status of small ruminant brucellosis in our country is therefore extremely important. Therefore, the aims of this review are; a) To highlight (snapshot) of brucellosis in the small ruminant; b) To show the seroprevalence status of small ruminant brucellosis in Ethiopia perspective; c)To highlight possible risk factor and its economic importance.

    Keywords

    Small ruminants; Brucellosis; Sheeps; Goats, Ethiopia.

    Abbereviations

    ASS: Agricultural Sample Survey; CFSPH: Center for Food Security and Public Health; CFT: Complement Fixation Test; CSA: Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia; ELISA: Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay; FAO: Food and Agricultural Organization; IBM: Interim Brucellosis Manual; Ig: Immunoglobulin; ILCA: International Livestock Center for Africa; MoARD: Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development; MZN: Modified Ziehl-Neelsen; NVI: National Veterinary Institute; OIE: Office International de Epizootics; RBPT: Rose Bengal Plate Test; WHO: World Health Organization; I-ELISA: Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay.


  • 2019, November

    review

    Probiotics and Its Potential Role in Poultry Production: A ReviewOpen Access

    PDF461.86 KB 461.86 KB
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    Abstract [+]

    Probiotics are live microbial feed supplements, which have an effect on the host animal by means of enhancing its intestinal microbial balance. A probiotic is a culture of a single bacterial strain, or a mixture of different strains, with the aim of eliminating the colonization of pathogens in the gastrointestinal tract of poultry. The main sources of probiotics in poultry are strains of microorganisms such as Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Bacillus and fermented dairy products like yoghurt, cultured buttermilk and cheese. A good probiotic is characterized by its ability to exert a beneficial effect on a host, resistance to low pH and bile salts, adhere and colonizing of the intestinal epithelium, non-pathogenic to host and produces antimicrobial substances towards pathogens. It also boosts immune responses, improves the growth performance and productivity of poultry and increases the quality of meat and egg. Thus, probiotics are considered to fill the gap in the poultry industry due to diseases and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria as well as environmental conditions that cause serious problems and economic losses in many countries. With current consumer preferences tending toward purchasing products from livestock grown without antibiotics and feed additive, the ingredients in this review paper presented the beneficial applications probiotic may have in poultry production.

    Keywords

    Antimicrobials; Microorganisms; Poultry production; Probiotics.


  • 2019, November

    review

    Medicinal Value of Croton macrostachyus and Solanum incanum against Causative Agent of Foodborne DiseasesOpen Access

    PDF484.16 KB 484.16 KB
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    Abstract [+]

    Foodborne diseases are a public health threat which causes a large economic impact across the worldwide. Escherichia coli (E. coli), Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes), Salmonella species (S. species), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and many more other organisms are the leading causes of foodborne illness and death in the world. Increment of antibiotic resistance exhibited by the actions of microbial infectious agents has led to screening of several medicinal plants for their potential antimicrobial activity. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review on the medicinal value of Croton macrostachyus (C. macrostachyus) and Solanum incanum (S.incanum) against causative agents of foodborne disease. Antimicrobial compounds of medicinal plants differ from antibiotics as they have fewer side effects, better patient tolerance, relatively less expensive, acceptance due to a long history of use and being renewable in nature. There are so many medicinal plants used to treat foodborne diseases which associated with gastroenteritis in humans and animals, among plants S. incanum and C. macrostachyus are the common for treatment of foodborne diseases associated with diarrhea. S. incanum has different bioactive substances which have medicinal importance against skin diseases, abdominal pains, fever, stomachaches and indigestion, treatment of dandruff, wounds, sore throat, angina, ear inflammation, liver disorders, wart and ringworm and treatment of cow driosis, dermatophilosis, foot rot, pasteurellosis, black leg, fasciolosis and snake bite. Bioactive compounds which present in S. incanum are including alkaloids, steroids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, flavonoid and terpenoids. C. macrostachyus is medicinal plant which have bioactive compounds including terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, lignoids, proanthcyanidins, sesquiterpenoids and lupeol, saponnins, resins, crotepeoxide. C. macrostachyus have medicinal value in treatment of malaria, rabies, gonorrhea, wound, diarrhea, hepatitis, jaundice, abdominal pain, cancer, toothache, pneumonia, typhoidand gastrointestinal disorder. Which is also used as abortifacient and uterotonic to expel retained placenta. Therefore, S. incanum and C. Macrostachyus have different medicinal value against foodborne disease and drug-resistance infectious agents. However, an advanced study have not been conducted on the extract of pure bioactive compounds and toxicity analysis. Therefore, further studies should have to be conducted to extract pure compounds from these medicinal plants for pharmaceutics industry.

    Keywords

    Bioactive substance; Drug resistance; Food borne disease; Infectious agent; Medicinal plants.


  • 2019, November

    review

    Non-Surgical Sterilization Methods in Male Animals: A ReviewOpen Access

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    Abstract [+]

    Non-surgical sterilization technique in animals is an ancient practice and dates back to 7000 BC. Surgical castration in animals has been applied for centuries to control the animal population, advance genetic selection, improve calmness of aggressive animals and mainly to ensure and selectively provide high-quality meat production for human consumption. An ideal method of castration should cause permanent block to spermatogenesis and inhibit androgenetic enzymes with low-cost of treatment and doesn’t affect the welfare of the animal. Even if operative methods are the main methods of castration, hormonal castration and chemical castration are also an alternative and equivalent method of sterilization. Over the past years, non-surgical sterilization has found application in male dogs, cats, monkeys, goats, bulls, hamsters and rabbits. Calcium chloride, lactic acid, sodium chloride, chlorhexidine, formalin, zinc tannate, zinc gluconate, glycerol, glucose, ethanol and silver nitrate are commonly used in chemical

    castration. After intratesticular application, degeneration of seminiferous tubules and Leydig cells, decrease in testosterone and sperm production, testicular atrophy is observed. In this review, the approaches of chemical castration were mentioned in different male animals.

    Keywords

    Male animal; Non-surgical sterilization; Castration; Chemicals; Testicle.


  • 2019, October

    case report

    Unilateral Surgical Amputation of Horn Due to Suppurative Sinusitis in CowOpen Access

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    Abstract [+]

    Dehorning or disbudding is the process of removing or stopping the growth of the horns and horn producing tissues after the horns have formed from the bud by different methods which can match to the size of the horn and age. The present case report is aimed to describe and document the surgical procedures, techniques of unilateral horn amputation and its outcome on six years old local breed cow that was referred to the veterinary teaching hospital (VTH), Addis Ababa University from nearby; Hiddi Veterinary Clinic. History stipulated as the cow was treated several times with antibiotics but didn’t respond as the condition was getting worse. Based on the history and clinical findings, the case was diagnosed as suppurative frontal sinusitis. After aseptic preparation of the surgical site, stabilizing the animal and locally desensitizing the incision area; an elliptical skin incision with a distance of approximately (~1 cm wide) around the base of a right horn was performed for successful removal of the corium. Then, skin edge was opposed to assist the skin contraction by using the silk 2-0 size in cross mattress suture pattern. Then the area was properly bandaged with elastic bandages and properly secured to the normal horn and admitted home. Finally, with regular dressing, bandaging and lavaging of the dehorned site, the cow was successfully recovered after two months.

    Keywords

    Cow; Dehorning; Horn Injury.


  • 2019, September

    original research

    Prevalence of Major Gastrointestinal Tract Parasite of Cattle at Municipal Abattoir of Jimma Town, Oromia, South Western EthiopiaOpen Access

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    Aim

    The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of major gastrointestinal tract (GIT) parasite of cattle’s and associated major risk factor at Jimma municipal abattoir.

    Method

    A cross-sectional study with a simple random sampling method was conducted from November, 2018 to April, 2019.

    Result

    Based on the carpological examination, from 400 animals that were presented for slaughter at Jimma municipal abattoir, 46.8% (187) of animals have at least one GIT parasite. The study detected five genera of GIT parasite which were Strongyle-type, Trichuris spp., Monezia spp., Paramphistomum spp. and Eimeria spp. with prevalence of 28.9% (54), 4.8% (9), 3.2% (6), 38.5% (72) and 13.4% (25), respectively while mixed parasites has 11.2% (21) of prevalence. The diversity of those mixed parasite were Strongyle type with Paramphistomum spp., aramphistomum spp. with Eimeria spp., Eimeria spp. with Trichuris spp., Strongyle spp. with Monezia spp., Paramphistomum spp with Monezia spp,, Strongyle type with Emeria spp. and Paramphistomum spp. with Trichuris spp. with the prevalence of 42.9%, 14.3%, 14.3%, 9.5%, 14.3%, 23.8% and 10.0% respectively. The prevalence of gastrointestinal

    parasite based on origin of the study animals was recorded and showed statistically significant difference with p-value of 0.001 (p≤0.05) and the prevalence was highest in Seka Chekorsa and followed by Kersa, Mena, Oma Nada and Dedo in decreasing order. The risk factor related to the age showed statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in which GIT parasite has highest prevalence in young and least in old and moderate in adult cattle. This study showed that infection prevalence was highest in animal with poor body condition followed by medium and good body condition scores and difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). In addition, the difference between the season also recorded and found statistically significant (p<0.05).

    Conclusion

    The finding showed that good management and strategic anthelmintic treatment need to be applied in the area to reduce the

    prevalence of the GIT parasites of cattle and their risk factor to lessen economic loss caused by the parasite.

    Keywords

    Abattoir; Carpological examination; GIT parasite; Jimma.

    Abbreviations

    ELISA: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; GDP: Gross domestic product; GIT: Gastrointestinal tract; Spp: Species; BW: Body weight.


  • 2019, August

    review

    Factors Affecting Rumen Microbial Protein Synthesis: A ReviewOpen Access

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    Abstract [+]

    There is a diversified microbial ecosystem in the rumen for efficient utilization of diet by providing essential nutrient to their host. But there are different factors affecting rumen microbial protein synthesis which are physical factors, chemical factors, dietary factors, biological factors and endogenous factors. Among the details of factors, dietary factors and ruminal pH are the dominant factors influencing rumen microbial protein production. The effects of some dietary factors, on the amount and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis, are discussed in this review. Specifically, these factors include forage quality diets, level of feed and types of feed. It seemed that diets containing a mixture of forages and concentrates increase the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis because of an improved rumen environment for the growth of more diverse bacterial species. This review describes physical and chemical factors which include: pH and buffer system, oxygen concentration, rumen outflow rate and synchronized release of nitrogen and energy from the diet, a nitrogen compound, energy spilling, vitamins and minerals and antimicrobials chemicals, respectively. Age, species, physiological status, sex, and stress are among endogenous factors that mostly affect microbial protein synthesis of a ruminant. Bacteriophages, protozoa predation and bacterial lysis are biological factors affecting the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis. All these factors have a direct effect on the synthesis of microbial protein in the rumen. Therefore, the cumulative effects of the above factors are resulted in the depopulation of rumen microflora and finally reduction of animal product. So, improvement in quantitative aspect of microbial protein synthesis solves many problems from simple to complex so that, the quantitative aspect of rumen microbial biomass are invaluable for health and productivity of ruminants than qualitative aspect hence, maintain health rumen ecosystem means having healthy ruminant.

    Keywords

    Rumen; pouvoir hydrogène (pH); Microbial protein; Rumen ecosystem; Ruminant; Rumen microflora; Nutrient; Haematological parameters reference ranges; Healthy status.

    Abbreviations

    MBP: Microbial protein; MCP: Microbial crude protein; NDF: Neutral detergent fiber; NPN: Non-protein pitrogen; NSC: Nonstructural carbohydrate; OM: Organic matter; OMTDR: Organic matter truly digested in rumen; RDP: Rumen degradable protein; RUP: Rumen undegradable protein; SCFA: Short chain fatty acid; TDN: Total digestible nutrient; VFA: Volatile fatty acid; ATP: Adenosine Tri-phosphate; CP: Crude protein; CS: Concentrate supplementation; DM: Dry matter; DOMI: Dry organic matter intake; EMPS: Efficiency of microbial protein synthesis; FOM: Fermented organic matter.


  • 2019, June

    original research

    Canine Urolithiasis and Concurrent Urinary Bladder Abnormalities: Symptoms, Haematology, Urinalysis and Comparative Radiographic and Ultrasonographic DiagnosisOpen Access

    PDF378.05 KB 378.05 KB
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    Background
    Urocystoliths are difficult to palpate and physical examination findings, complete blood cell count (CBC) and serum biochemical analysis are usually normal and the clinical signs are not definitive. Thus diagnostic imaging is a crucial tool required to confirm the diagnosis of urolithiasis in dogs presented with non-specific clinical signs of urogenital affection.

    Aim
    The aim of this study was to compare the capability of radiography and ultrasonography in detecting uroliths and concurrent urinary system abnormalities and to evaluate clinical, haematological and urinalysis findings of dogs affected with urolithiasis during the presentation.

    Methods
    Findings of signalment, history, physical and laboratory examination of blood and urine were performed and recorded. All dogs presented with complete or partial urinary obstruction, haematuria and renal failure were subjected to both radiographic and ultrasonographic evaluation. Uroliths were retrieved by a cystotomy, urethrotomy, and at necropsy from kidney failure cases confirming urolithiasis.

    Results
    The result revealed occult clinical haematuria in 56.5%, microscopic haematuria in 78.3% and dysuria/anuria in 34.8% of the affected dogs. Crystalluria is detected in seven (30.4%) of urolithiasis affected dogs. The total leukocyte count was significantly elevated (p≤0.05) in partially and completely obstructed dogs. Radiography diagnosed 19 of 23 urolithiasis cases in the urinary bladder (UB), 2 of 2 in the kidney and 12 of 13 in the urethra while ultrasonography diagnosed 17 of 23 urolithiasis cases in the UB and one in the urethra. From a total of 15 dogs presented with either neoplastic growth and/or cystitis concurrent with urolithiasis, ultrasound detected six while pneumocystogrpahy detected only one.

    Conclusion
    The study showed haematuria as the leading clinical sign of urolithiasis. Detection of urolithiasis and concurrent cystitis and/or urinary bladder growth increases when ultrasonography and radiography were employed together.


About the Journal

Veterinary Medicine – Open Journal (VMOJ) is an online open access domain which covers all aspects of animal husbandry and veterinary well being in all spheres of animal domestication.

Veterinary Medicine can be defined as a branch of science that deals with the identification, prevention and isolation of diseases, conditions, and disorders in animal species (Both domesticated and wild).

Openventio dedicates itself to highlight all the matters related to Veterinary Medicine and to bring information from all the authors and diverse sources in a uniform way through our well-designed open access portal.

Aims and Scope

Veterinary Medicine – Open Journal aims to create awareness and discuss issues pertaining to Veterinary Medicine and its co-relation with medicinal sciences, community, and interdependencies among each other.

VMOJ covers a wide array of subjects as given below:

  • Veterinary Biochemistry
  • Animal Husbandry
  • Veterinary Parasitology
  • Animal Genetics
  • Veterinary Microbiology
  • Wildlife
  • Meat Science and Technology
  • Poultry science
  • Diary Science
  • Animal Nutrition
  • Veterinary Surgery and Radiology
  • Animal Genetics and Breeding

Submissions for this journal are accepted from all practitioners and students of veterinary medicine, from experts in the field to novices who are just beginning their journey in veterinary medicine.

The audience of VMOJ includes doctors, nurses, research assistants, local community practitioners, government bodies such as departments of animal husbandry and students of various universities and general communities from different parts of the world.

The journal welcomes all types of articles such as original research, review, case-report, mini-review, editorial, short-communication, book review, opinion, commentary, letter to the editor, conference proceedings, technical report, errata, illustrations, etc.

We are open to receive comments and corrections from experts in the field to improve the quality of our journal.