Volume 4, Issue 3

  • 2020, October

    case report

    Testicular Metastasis of Merkel’s Cell CarcinomaOpen Access

    PDF471.33 KB 471.33 KB
    Full-Text (HTML)
    Abstract [+]

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) in an uncommon neuroendocrine neoplasia that originates in the skin in which testicular metastasis is atypical. There are only eight cases reported to date. A 65-year-old patient with a history of MCC in the right thigh who had been treated in 2015 with surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy; presented to hospital with pain and right testicular enlargement of one-month duration and with normal testicular tumor markers. An ultrasound study confirmed multiple hypoechoic nodular solid lesions compatible with neoplasia and orchiectomy was subsequently performed. The histological examination reported an immunohistochemical pattern compatible with a diagnosis of MCC. The patient received adjuvant immunotherapy with Avelumab. MCC rarely spreads to the testicle and, due to the shortage of studies, the best treatment of testicular metastasis remains uncertain; however, immunotherapy may be appropriate.
    Keywords
    Merkel; Testicular metastasis.


  • 2020, October

    case report

    Scrotal Microcystic Lymphangioma: A Case Report with Clinical and Dermoscopic AspectsOpen Access

    PDF325.44 KB 325.44 KB
    Full-Text (HTML)
    Abstract [+]

    Cystic lymphangioma is a relatively frequent condition. However, the scrotum is one of the least common sites. The diagnosis is made with ultrasonography and the treatment of limited and circumscribed cases, is surgical excision or sclerotherapy where appropriate. We report the case of a 23-year-old boy who presented with asymptomatic scrotal vesicular lesions evolving over 6-years. Clinical and dermoscopic examination supported by ultrasound and histology were in favor of a microcystic lymphangioma.
    Keywords
    Cystic Lymphangioma; Circumscriptum; Scrotum; Clinic; Dermoscopy.


  • 2020, October

    case report

    Pleomorphic Giant Cell Carcinoma of Urinary Bladder with Brain Metastases Despite Initial Response to Cisplatin and Gemcitabine: A Case ReportOpen Access

    PDF371.26 KB 371.26 KB
    Full-Text (HTML)
    Abstract [+]

    A 59-year-old male presented with haematuria and was diagnosed with pleomorphic giant cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, a very rare variant of urothelial carcinoma. The tumour was staged at pT2N3M1 and the primary tumour was removed by transurethral resection, and nodal metastases were treated with the standard systemic cisplatin and gemcitabine for urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder. This treatment rendered the tumour clinically undetectable. Despite this treatment the patient developed brain metastases which were not found until the patient presented with neurological symptoms. This is the first recorded case of brain metastases from pleomorphic giant cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder recorded in the literature. CT imaging of the brain should be considered in the follow-up in patients with this tumour.
    Keywords
    Urinary bladder; Brain metastases despite; Cisplatin and gemcitabine.


  • 2020, November

    original research

    Tumour Volume of the Index Lesion in Prostate Cancer: Correlation between Results of Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging and the HistophatologyOpen Access

    PDF284.02 KB 284.02 KB
    Full-Text (HTML)
    Abstract [+]

    Introduction
    Prostate cancer is generally multifocal, presenting a lesion with a dominant focus (index lesion) that is characterized by being the lesion with the greatest volume and the biological capacity of invasion to adjacent tissues and distant metastases. With the advent of focal therapy and organ preservation in prostate cancer, it is essential to know the real tumour volume and thus, avoid the persistence of disease after treatments with curative intent. The aim of this study is to correlate the results of the dominant tumour volume obtained from the multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate and the histopathology.
    Material and Methods
    A retrospective study was performed which included all radical prostatectomies (RP) with previous MRI. A comparative analysis was performed between the tumour volume obtained from the MRI and the histopathology.
    Results
    A total of 46 patients were included in the study. The sensibility of the MRI in diagnosing the index lesion was 82.6%, highlighting that all tumours with a Gleason score ≥ 4+3 were diagnosed. The mean tumour volume in the MRI was 14.3 mm and in the histological result was 18.82 mm (p<0.05). The estimation tumour volume concordance was greatest in higher risk (International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP)).
    Conclusion
    The MRI underestimates the real tumour volume of the prostate cancer index lesion when compared to the histological result of the surgical piece, being significantly lower in high-risk lesions.
    Keywords
    Prostate cancer; MRI; Radical prostatectomy; Index lesion; Tumour volume.


  • 2021, January

    case report

    Malpositioned Right Ureteral Stent into the Duodenum: A Rare Case ReportOpen Access

    PDF467.13 KB 467.13 KB
    Full-Text (HTML)
    Abstract [+]

    Double J (DJ) stenting is a routine procedure in our urological practice to treat ureteral obstruction. We report a rare case where the proximal coil of a DJ stent was found in the second part of duodenum diagnosed on imaging and confirmed by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, in a patient with chronic right flank pain who underwent emergency right DJ stenting elsewhere. He presented to our institution 3-months later for further management. It is important to be aware of all possible complications before placing DJ stents and be aware that if any such complication arise, they need to be dealt with early. It is important to avoid blind DJ stent insertion especially in acute or inflammatory conditions. One can avoid such situations by stenting under image guidance and preferably with a retrograde pyelogram (RGP) or by deploying a guidewire under direct vision using a ureteroscope. If stent malposition is suspected then early detection and replacement of the malpositioned DJ stent under fluoroscopic guidance is an essential step in management.
    Keywords
    Double J stenting; DJ stent malposition; Upper GI endoscopy; DJ stent coil in duodenum; Right contracted kidney; Inflammatory
    retroperitoneal mass; Laparoscopic nephrectomy.