Volume 6, Issue 1

  • 2020, June

    original research

    A System or Method of Analysis for Injury Prevention in Sports, Youth Fastpitch Softball Pitchers: A Pilot StudyOpen Access

    PDF447.07 KB 447.07 KB
    Full-Text (HTML)
    Abstract [+]

    Background

    The prevalence of softball injuries in young pitchers is increasing with more injuries in the upper extremity in the beginning of the season.

    Research Question

    Calculate the forces generated during the pitching motion of female youth pitchers at four main areas: the stride, hips, shoulder, and wrist for 2 groups. R1: u1≠u2.

    Study Design

    Pilot study, Cross-sectional design.

    Level of Evidence

    Level-2, Strength-B.

    Methods

    This study included a total of 15 female youth fastpitch softball pitchers (mean age, 14.33-years; mean weight, 59.01 kg) recruited to participate during the Fall Softball League (2014). Divided into two groups: 270° hip rotation group vs. a projected 360° hip rotation group.

    Results

    A paired sample t-test showed that the 2 groups (270° hip rotation and projected 360° hip rotation) were strongly and positively correlated (r=0.993, p<0.001). There was a significant average difference between 270° hip rotation and the projected 360° hip rotation forces (t14=12.996, p<0.001). On average, the projected 360° hip rotation forces were 580.68 N higher than 270° hip rotation forces (95% CI [676.51, 484.84].

    Conclusion

    The Current Method (CM) of pitching clearly uses the shoulder as the driving force of the pitch, as pitchers created 467.96 N of force at the shoulder. Pitchers who used 270° hip rotation produced an average of 147.33 N at the hip while these same individuals can create an average of 589.30 N with full hip rotation.

    Clinical Relevance

    Pitchers using the CM of pitching generated an average of 468 N of force at the shoulder. Identifying interruptions in the kinetic chain is the key to reducing injuries. This is accomplished by creating the ideal kinetic chain and teaching it through a certified pitching coach program. Once identified, interruptions can be modified and changed through exercises to strengthen and improve the kinetic chain.

    Keywords

    Softball injury prevention; Fastpitch softball; Windmill pitch; Female youth pitchers; Windmill biomechanics.


  • 2020, June

    original research

    Challenges and Practices in the Implementation of Coaching Manuals in Selected Youth Handball Coaching Program in Addis Ababa, EthiopiaOpen Access

    PDF415.56 KB 415.56 KB
    Full-Text (HTML)
    Abstract [+]

    Objective

    The aim of this study was to assess challenges and current practices in implementation of coaching manuals in selected Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia youth handball coaching program.

    Methods

    The study was employed a descriptive survey research method. Ten sample youth projects were selected, from twenty-four youth handball projects using stratified and purposive sampling technique. Thus, the samples of this study were 50 players, 10 coaches and 32 sport administrative officials. The data was collected through questionnaire and observation checklist and thus, analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative methods by describing statements and frequency counts and percentages.

    Results

    The findings of the study indicated that, lack of coordination work among the concerned stakeholders, due to financial scarcity; unavailability of adequate training materials and equipment, and the selection of trainees conducted just randomly without clearly stated criteria. Lack of suitable and standardized handball courts in the area and less emphasis given to maintain even the existing ones, the existed manual was not well designed and modified based on the trainee’s age level since similar manual for both sex. Due to monitoring were limited to certain sport expertise, here were no concerned bodies in charge of finding immediate solutions to the problem that were faced by the coaches and trainees. Furthermore, due to lack of awareness of communities, trainee families did not support the training program.

    Conclusion

    This kind of implementations revealed that was exposed to failure to solve the confronted challenges. Therefore, attention must be paid to the availability of sport infrastructures and qualified human resources should be employed. In addition, special attention must be given to acquiring and developing resource material such as manuals and coaching kits, which may assist in improving knowledge and advancing the technical skills of sport experts and coaches.

    Keywords

    Handball; Program; Trainee; Coaching manual; Challenges; Coach; Implementation.


  • 2020, June

    brief research report

    Contributions to Global Self-Esteem: Domain Specific Self Perceptions in Athletes Vs. Non-AthletesOpen Access

    PDF374.79 KB 374.79 KB
    Full-Text (HTML)
    Abstract [+]

    Objective

    The objective of the present study was to examine the influence of social self-concept and physical self-worth on global self-esteem in college athletes compared to their non-competing peers. It was hypothesized that the unique contribution of each variable on self-esteem would be markedly different between the groups.

    Methods

    In a population of 146 undergraduate students, regression analyses revealed significant relationships between the domain-specific self-perceptions and global self-esteem in both groups. It was determined, however, that athletes and non-athletes differed in the distribution of variance explained by the variables. Specifically, the variance in self-esteem in athletes was attributed exclusively to physical self-worth while non-athletes revealed unique contributions from both social self-concept as well as physical self-worth.

    Results and Conclusion

    The results of the present study may be meaningful from the perspective of athletic identity and retirement from sport. Further investigation is warranted, both qualitatively and quantitatively, that may assist in developing strategies to ease the transition from participating athlete to non-competitive participation. An additional area of interest may be in examining the relationship between the domain-specific self-perceptions and psychological risk for, and impact of, athletic injury.

    Keywords

    Self-esteem; Athletes; Social self-concept; Physical self-worth; Non-athletes.


  • 2020, September

    systematic review

    The Roles of Physical Activity in Preventing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Implications for Sub-Saharan AfricaOpen Access

    PDF368.02 KB 368.02 KB
    Full-Text (HTML)
    Abstract [+]

    Background

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia which is due to reduced insulin secretion and/or action. It has 6 sub-classes but type 2 is the most common. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rising at a very high rate in the sub-Saharan Africa region. Prevention is however better than cure and there are multiple pieces of evidence of the highest level that type 2 diabetes is preventable. Prevention of type 2 diabetes is looked at from the perspectives of primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary prevention.

    Methods

    Measures that have been documented in the literature that can be adopted in the prevention of diabetes include lifestyle modification, pharmacotherapy and surgical interventions. Lifestyle modification is the most commonly reported measure and physical activity is a central focus in lifestyle modification. Physical activity refers to all body movements that lead to expenditure of energy above the resting level. Exercise is a structured and monitored subset of physical activity. Physical activity has been documented to help in the primordial prevention of type 2 diabetes for children born to a woman with gestational diabetes. It helps in modifying risk factors for diabetes such as obesity, dyslipidaemia and high blood pressure.

    Conclusion

    It is also valuable for secondary prevention of diabetes by modifying risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, excess calorie intake and lipids. Physical activity plays a central role in the management of a patient diagnosed with diabetes at the level of secondary prevention. Effective rehabilitation of patients with type 2 diabetes who have suffered macrovascular complications would constitute a tertiary level of prevention. Since physical activity is an effective, affordable and available form of preventing type 2 diabetes sub-Saharan Africa where the population has limited resources can leverage on its cost-effectiveness. This will help to improve longevity and improve the quality of life of people and save scarce resources in the region.

    Keywords

    Physical activity; Type 2 diabetes; Prevention; Sub-Saharan Africa.


  • 2020, September

    systematic review

    Adoption of Change: A Systematic Review of the Transtheoretical ModelOpen Access

    PDF515.10 KB 515.10 KB
    Full-Text (HTML)
    Abstract [+]

    Introduction

    Sedentary lifestyle is a risk factor for life-altering comorbidities. Though the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have provided guidelines, 80% of Americans do not get the recommended physical activity (PA) dose per day. Motivation continues to be an important and elusive factor to effect change.

    Purpose

    Assess the available evidence regarding the application of the transtheoretical model and stages of change theory (TTM-SOC) in the last 10-years to behavior changes for PA.

    Methods

    Databases including PSYCInfo, ERIC, CINAHL, EBM, DARE, and OVID, were searched with the following key search terms: “Lifestyle Changes” OR “Lifestyle” OR “Active Living” OR “Lifestyle Changes” OR “Physical Activity” OR “Actigraphy” OR “Exercise” OR “Activity Level” AND “Transtheoretical Model” OR “Stages of Change”. Seventy-nine studies fit the inclusion criteria and were assessed for quality and validity using the PEDrO scale for experimental studies and the specialist unit for review evidence (SURE) for cohort investigations.

    Results

    Of the five (5) interventional studies included, none used all four components of the TTM-SOC, namely, stages of change, decisional balance, processes of change and self-efficacy. Observational studies were assessed with eleven (11) classified as observational analytical and nineteen (19) as observational descriptive.

    Conclusion

    None of the investigations assessed the full TTM-SOC. As such, there can be no definitive conclusions with regard to the effectiveness of stage-matched interventions to promote a change from sedentary lifestyle to adoption of PA. There is a need for more rigorous research to test the application of TTM-SOC with both physiologic and quantitative measures for PA.

    Keywords

    Systematic review; Transtheoretical model; Stage of change; Physical activity.