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The purpose of this study was to 1) compare the body composition values of an active group of breast cancer survivors (BCS) determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and anthropometry, and 2) compare the bone mineral density of the upper thoracic region to assess the effect of tumor burden on bone health.
Design and Methods
Forty (n=40) breast cancer survivors from a local competitive Dragon Boat Team were measured as part of team assessments. ANOVA with Dunn’s post-hoc testing was used to compare results of DXA, body density, and body composition estimated from anthropometry. Bland-Altman testing and correlational analysis were calculated.
Percentage of fat measure by DXA was significantly higher than values used to estimate body fat from skinfold measures or from body density equations (DXA 41.1±6.0% vs. 3-site skinfolds 28.8±4.9%, 4-site skinfolds, 22.1±4.1%, skinfold and body density, 31.8±9.4%, respectively, p<0.05). Post-hoc testing revealed that all values were significantly different and the strongest correlation
with DXA was skinfolds at three sites was r=0.81. Regional (upper thoracic) bone mineral density was not significantly different based on tumor side diagnosis (breast cancer diagnosis side versus healthy, 0.971±0.198 vs. 0.988±0.190 gm*cc-1). Anthropometry and bilateral bone mineral density characteristics are presented to serve as a comparative sample of BCS for future studies.
As body composition is an important factor in long-term cancer survivorship, we found the use of skinfold measures inadequate to accurately determine percentage of fat in this group of active female BCS. As a result, recommendations aimed at achieving an ideal body composition based solely on anthropometry would have grossly underestimated fat mass, which may lead to overall clinically poorer outcomes.
Breast cancer; Body composition; Percentage fat; Bone mineral density.
The hindlimb suspended (HLS) rat model has been used in land-based research to evaluate effects of simulated microgravity. Previous research demonstrated that 2-4 weeks of HLS reduced vasoconstrictive responses of aortic, mesenteric, and femoral arterial rings to phenylephrine (PHE) while acute exposure to hyperoxia amplified constrictive responses to PHE. The purpose of this study was to determine if hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBO) during HLS would reverse the attenuation of the vasoconstrictive response.
Five-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into aging controls (AC), AC-HBO, HLS, and HLS-HBO. Groups receiving HBO (AC-HBO; HLS-HBO) were placed in a cage that was fitted for the animal hyperbaric chamber to maintain HLS. HBO groups received 24 treatments, once a day, 6 d/week using a wound care protocol. The chamber was flushed with 100% oxygen, compressed over 10 min to 2.5 atmospheres absolute (ATA) (22.5 psig), a 90-minute treatment, then a 10 min decompression. After 28 d of HLS, animals were sacrificed under isoflurane anesthesia and thoracic aorta segments isolated. Relaxation of aortic rings was measured in response to acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) after pre-constriction with PHE (3×10-7). Constriction of aortic rings was also determined in response to increasing concentrations of PHE. All drugs were administered cumulatively in vessel baths at 10-10-10-4 M. Data were analyzed using four-parameter (i.e., minimum, maximum, EC50, slope) nonlinear regression, and groups compared using 2×2 ANOVA with HBO and HLS as main effects.
Responses to ACh and SNP were not affected by HLS or HBO. However, in response to PHE, there was a decrease in maximum vasoconstriction in HLS compared to controls (44.7±7.3% vs 82.4±6.0%, respectively, p≤0.05) and in HBO compared to controls (48.5±6.5% vs 78.6±6.8%, p≤0.05).
These results indicate that PHE-induced constriction of thoracic aorta is decreased after HLS. HBO did not reverse HLS-induced reductions in contractile responses; instead, HBO independently reduced PHE-stimulated constriction of aortic segments. This suggests that HBO may be useful in conditions where constriction is enhanced, such as diabetes.
Hyperbaric oxygen; Vascular reactivity; Hindlimb suspension.
In the realm of competitive athletics, numerous variables have been examined for predictive utility with respect to player selection/development and outcomes on the field. Notwithstanding important advances, the current predictors only account for a modest amount of variance in outcomes of relevance in the National Football League (NFL).
The primary objective of this study was to investigate the predictive validity of a new measure of athletic intelligence, the Athletic Intelligence Quotient (AIQ), which is based on the empirically supported Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Theory of Intelligence. The predictive validity of the AIQ was determined in relation to performance metrics from 146 NFL players across several seasons.
Hierarchical regression analyses indicate that specific AIQ factors accounted for a statistically significant increase in the explanation of variance beyond the current level of evaluation for several performance metrics (e.g., career approximate value; sacks, tackles, rushing yards). Further, specific factors of the AIQ are related to position specific statistics, offering the possibility that performance prediction can be focused in for the specific skills required by a given position.
Given the recent impact of analytics in professional sports, and the significant findings noted in the current investigation, the authors discuss the potential importance of the AIQ in the selection and coaching processes.
The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines recommend that the more than 53 million people living with a physical disability in the United States to participate in regular physical activities consisting of both aerobic and anaerobic components, if possible. Also, if individuals with physical disabilities are unable to meet the recommended physical activity guidelines, they are encouraged to do as much as their physical disability permits. Despite the recommended guidelines, several individuals with physical disabilities do not participate in regular physical activities. Prior research suggests that several societal and structural barriers in sport and exercise environments often negatively affect individuals with physical disabilities. Thus, it is essential for family members, healthcare practitioners, rehabilitation/recreational teams, and community leaders to encourage individuals with physical disabilities to conquer barriers that restrict participation.
The prevalence of softball injuries in young pitchers is increasing with more injuries in the upper extremity in the beginning of the season.
Calculate the forces generated during the pitching motion of female youth pitchers at four main areas: the stride, hips, shoulder, and wrist for 2 groups. R1: u1≠u2.
Pilot study, Cross-sectional design.
Level of Evidence
This study included a total of 15 female youth fastpitch softball pitchers (mean age, 14.33-years; mean weight, 59.01 kg) recruited to participate during the Fall Softball League (2014). Divided into two groups: 270° hip rotation group vs. a projected 360° hip rotation group.
A paired sample t-test showed that the 2 groups (270° hip rotation and projected 360° hip rotation) were strongly and positively correlated (r=0.993, p<0.001). There was a significant average difference between 270° hip rotation and the projected 360° hip rotation forces (t14=12.996, p<0.001). On average, the projected 360° hip rotation forces were 580.68 N higher than 270° hip rotation forces (95% CI [676.51, 484.84].
The Current Method (CM) of pitching clearly uses the shoulder as the driving force of the pitch, as pitchers created 467.96 N of force at the shoulder. Pitchers who used 270° hip rotation produced an average of 147.33 N at the hip while these same individuals can create an average of 589.30 N with full hip rotation.
Pitchers using the CM of pitching generated an average of 468 N of force at the shoulder. Identifying interruptions in the kinetic chain is the key to reducing injuries. This is accomplished by creating the ideal kinetic chain and teaching it through a certified pitching coach program. Once identified, interruptions can be modified and changed through exercises to strengthen and improve the kinetic chain.
Softball injury prevention; Fastpitch softball; Windmill pitch; Female youth pitchers; Windmill biomechanics.
The aim of this study was to assess challenges and current practices in implementation of coaching manuals in selected Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia youth handball coaching program.
The study was employed a descriptive survey research method. Ten sample youth projects were selected, from twenty-four youth handball projects using stratified and purposive sampling technique. Thus, the samples of this study were 50 players, 10 coaches and 32 sport administrative officials. The data was collected through questionnaire and observation checklist and thus, analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative methods by describing statements and frequency counts and percentages.
The findings of the study indicated that, lack of coordination work among the concerned stakeholders, due to financial scarcity; unavailability of adequate training materials and equipment, and the selection of trainees conducted just randomly without clearly stated criteria. Lack of suitable and standardized handball courts in the area and less emphasis given to maintain even the existing ones, the existed manual was not well designed and modified based on the trainee’s age level since similar manual for both sex. Due to monitoring were limited to certain sport expertise, here were no concerned bodies in charge of finding immediate solutions to the problem that were faced by the coaches and trainees. Furthermore, due to lack of awareness of communities, trainee families did not support the training program.
This kind of implementations revealed that was exposed to failure to solve the confronted challenges. Therefore, attention must be paid to the availability of sport infrastructures and qualified human resources should be employed. In addition, special attention must be given to acquiring and developing resource material such as manuals and coaching kits, which may assist in improving knowledge and advancing the technical skills of sport experts and coaches.
Handball; Program; Trainee; Coaching manual; Challenges; Coach; Implementation.
brief research report
The objective of the present study was to examine the influence of social self-concept and physical self-worth on global self-esteem in college athletes compared to their non-competing peers. It was hypothesized that the unique contribution of each variable on self-esteem would be markedly different between the groups.
In a population of 146 undergraduate students, regression analyses revealed significant relationships between the domain-specific self-perceptions and global self-esteem in both groups. It was determined, however, that athletes and non-athletes differed in the distribution of variance explained by the variables. Specifically, the variance in self-esteem in athletes was attributed exclusively to physical self-worth while non-athletes revealed unique contributions from both social self-concept as well as physical self-worth.
Results and Conclusion
The results of the present study may be meaningful from the perspective of athletic identity and retirement from sport. Further investigation is warranted, both qualitatively and quantitatively, that may assist in developing strategies to ease the transition from participating athlete to non-competitive participation. An additional area of interest may be in examining the relationship between the domain-specific self-perceptions and psychological risk for, and impact of, athletic injury.
Self-esteem; Athletes; Social self-concept; Physical self-worth; Non-athletes.
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia which is due to reduced insulin secretion and/or action. It has 6 sub-classes but type 2 is the most common. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rising at a very high rate in the sub-Saharan Africa region. Prevention is however better than cure and there are multiple pieces of evidence of the highest level that type 2 diabetes is preventable. Prevention of type 2 diabetes is looked at from the perspectives of primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary prevention.
Measures that have been documented in the literature that can be adopted in the prevention of diabetes include lifestyle modification, pharmacotherapy and surgical interventions. Lifestyle modification is the most commonly reported measure and physical activity is a central focus in lifestyle modification. Physical activity refers to all body movements that lead to expenditure of energy above the resting level. Exercise is a structured and monitored subset of physical activity. Physical activity has been documented to help in the primordial prevention of type 2 diabetes for children born to a woman with gestational diabetes. It helps in modifying risk factors for diabetes such as obesity, dyslipidaemia and high blood pressure.
It is also valuable for secondary prevention of diabetes by modifying risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, excess calorie intake and lipids. Physical activity plays a central role in the management of a patient diagnosed with diabetes at the level of secondary prevention. Effective rehabilitation of patients with type 2 diabetes who have suffered macrovascular complications would constitute a tertiary level of prevention. Since physical activity is an effective, affordable and available form of preventing type 2 diabetes sub-Saharan Africa where the population has limited resources can leverage on its cost-effectiveness. This will help to improve longevity and improve the quality of life of people and save scarce resources in the region.
Physical activity; Type 2 diabetes; Prevention; Sub-Saharan Africa.
Sedentary lifestyle is a risk factor for life-altering comorbidities. Though the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have provided guidelines, 80% of Americans do not get the recommended physical activity (PA) dose per day. Motivation continues to be an important and elusive factor to effect change.
Assess the available evidence regarding the application of the transtheoretical model and stages of change theory (TTM-SOC) in the last 10-years to behavior changes for PA.
Databases including PSYCInfo, ERIC, CINAHL, EBM, DARE, and OVID, were searched with the following key search terms: “Lifestyle Changes” OR “Lifestyle” OR “Active Living” OR “Lifestyle Changes” OR “Physical Activity” OR “Actigraphy” OR “Exercise” OR “Activity Level” AND “Transtheoretical Model” OR “Stages of Change”. Seventy-nine studies fit the inclusion criteria and were assessed for quality and validity using the PEDrO scale for experimental studies and the specialist unit for review evidence (SURE) for cohort investigations.
Of the five (5) interventional studies included, none used all four components of the TTM-SOC, namely, stages of change, decisional balance, processes of change and self-efficacy. Observational studies were assessed with eleven (11) classified as observational analytical and nineteen (19) as observational descriptive.
None of the investigations assessed the full TTM-SOC. As such, there can be no definitive conclusions with regard to the effectiveness of stage-matched interventions to promote a change from sedentary lifestyle to adoption of PA. There is a need for more rigorous research to test the application of TTM-SOC with both physiologic and quantitative measures for PA.
Systematic review; Transtheoretical model; Stage of change; Physical activity.
Professor Faculty of Education-Physical and Health EducationDepartment of Teacher Training Shizuoka University Japan
Lecturer School of Sport and Exercise Massey UniversityPrivate Bag 11-222 Palmerston North 4474 New Zealand
Associate Professor National Institute of EducationNanyang Technological University 50 Nanyang Ave 639798, Singapore
Assistant ProfessorSport and Exercise Medicine UnitDepartment of Clinical and Experimental Medicine University of Florence Firenze 50121, Italy
Professor of Medicine Adjunct Professor of Sports Medicine and NutritionUniversity of Pittsburgh Chief of Sports MedicineDirector of Non Invasive Cardiac LaboratoryUniversità degli Studi di Firenze Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria CareggiFirenze 50121, Italy