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Medical and psychological literature finds that empathy is crucial in the doctor-patient relationship, and that in the last 30-years there has been a decrease among college students, particularly medical students. After the passing of Hurricane María in Puerto Rico, many medical professionals migrated, leaving the island with fewer specialists to teach the remaining medical community. This is the first such study conducted with medical students in Puerto Rico. It examines the perception of empathy from the medical student perspective amidst the particular historical context of a national emergency.
Three instruments were used: The Jefferson Scale of Empathy (Student Spanish Version) (JSE-S), Arrogance Scale (AS) and Social Desirability Scale. A Non-Experimental Correlational Exploratory study was carried out with 200 medical students (55.5% female; 44.5% male), who were coursing third (45.5%) or fourth year (54.5%), from three major medical schools on the island. The students signed informed consents and also answered sociodemographic questions.
The JSE-S demonstrated an acceptable internal consistency reliability (α=0.79) with 11 items and three underlying factors. Female students showed higher empathy scores than their male counterparts (M=73.96 vs. M=70.22, p=0.001). The JSE-S and the AS were inversely correlated. Results support that social desirability is not statistically significant as a moderator between empathy and arrogance. Significant differences were found on arrogance scores pertaining to medical specialty and on religious background. Empathy and arrogance were unrelated to age, coursing year, income or university of precedence.
Raising awareness about the importance of empathy through positive role modeling, interpersonal dynamics and valuing the doctor-patient relationship through the formative years of medical school is recommended.
Empathy; Jefferson Scale of Empathy; Medical students; Puerto Rico; Arrogance; Social desirability.
This article examines one key aspect of the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory (SASSI) Institute’s forthcoming third iteration of the Adolescent Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory (SASSI-A3). Overall project aims were to revise the second version of the adolescent SASSI (SASSI-A2), and to update new symptom-related identifiers of substance use disorders in adolescents according to the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) guidelines.
We added new questions regarding cannabidiol (CBD) edible consumption and the extent of vaping to review and subsequently address these dangers in teens. Identifying these patterns will inevitably direct the course of subsequent clinical interviews and treatment planning. Early intervention is a critical component towards preventing possible negative outcomes for substance misusing teens.
This aspect of the research demonstrated a connection between a higher acknowledged usage pattern of teens in treatment versus teens not in treatment. Correlations between beliefs associated with marijuana legalization, marijuana usage by family and friends, tobacco use, connection between age at first use, and the onset of regular usage patterns were also shown to be significantly higher among teens in treatment.
Teens that begin using alcohol, drugs, and tobacco early in adolescence are more likely to engage in vaping and edible usage. They are also more likely to use at a more frequent rate. In addition, teens who are surrounded by family and friends who engage in marijuana use are more likely to be supportive of its recreational use and legalization. This acknowledged information on the SASSI-A3 can help direct treatment planning early in the counseling relationship and provide a gateway for bringing family in the treatment and education process.
Adolescents; Vaping; Edibles; Tobacco; Marijuana; Cannabis.
Microaggressions — as a cumulative psychosocial stressor — may be a unique mechanism in the development of cardiovascular diseases, via transient changes in cardiovascular reactivity (CVR), for Latinx.
Experimental study with Latinx college students (n=33) randomly assigned to either a microinsult, microinvalidation, or control condition. Independent variables for MANOVA/MANCOVAs were the study conditions and dependent variables were blood pressure (BP) and impedance cardiography (ICG) indicators.
At baseline, two one-way MANOVAs showed no differences by condition for BP or ICG indicators. For the manipulation, results indicated no significant differences by condition for BP or ICG indices. During recovery, results demonstrated no significant differences by condition in BP or ICG indicators. Lastly, baseline experiences of microaggressions were not significantly associated with BP and ICG at recovery.
The experimental manipulation produced no significant difference in CVR by condition. Inferiority and second-class citizen microaggressions were not significantly associated with CVR at recovery. Findings do not negate the existence or cardiovascular impact of microaggressions; rather, these effects appear to be subtle. Implications for Latinx cardiovascular health are discussed.
Blood pressure (BP); Impedance cardiography; Cardiovascular reactivity; Latinx; Racial/ethnic microaggressions;
Cardiovascular health disparities.
This autobiographical narrative focuses on my life experiences learning two languages as well as the cultures. It acts as an archive from which I elicit evidence in exploring issues and themes related to learning language and culture, particularly those issues and themes relating to the complex dynamics of context. It explores factors influencing learning language/culture, such as subjective constructions and interpretations of teachers and learners, cultural, social, geographical, political, and local community aspects.
Learning language; Teaching; Conceptual background; Methodological background; Autobiography.
Criminal profiling has been through many different periods during the time the field has existed, but none of which has resulted in a scientific validation of the field and thereby shown how it could be effectively used in the capable hands of law enforcement. Part of the problem is that there is no proper collaboration between law enforcement and the academic world from which the scientific validation could arise. This brief communication will give an overview of the main approaches used today, as well as explain the overall building blocks of a proposed Trinity-approach. The Trinity-approach consists of a geographical profile, which should lay the foundation of any profile. The reason for the geographical profile to be the foundation is that this type of profiling has shown reliable results compared to other types of profiling. The next step should be a profile of the victim and finally followed by the profile of the offender. The profile of the victim, as well as that of offender should come from a database containing extensive scientific studies within the field of criminal profiling. The strength of the Trinity-approach is a build-in scientific foundation, based on scientific studies that have undergone proper scientific review. The hope is to generate interest and debate, and call upon collaboration between law enforcement and academics to develop a scientific basis for the effectiveness of profiling as well as evaluate the reliability and validity of the Trinity-approach.
Trinity-approach; Criminal profiling; Database profiling; Profiling; Geographical profiling; Offender profiling; Victimology.
Professor Emeritus of Psychology
University of La Verne
1950 Third Street
La Verne, California 91750, USA
Department of Teacher Training
Volgograd State Pedagogical University
Candidate of Pedagogic Sciences
Bogdanovich street 120, Apt. 50
Minsk, 220040, Belarus
Department of Economics
Dagestan State University
Russian Federation, Republic of Dagestan
Professor of Psychology
Western Washington University
516 High Street
Bellingham, WA 98225, USA