brief research report
This article presents an investigation of the defensiveness demonstrated by teens who are mandated to participate in treatment as compared to their non-mandated peers.
The data for this study was collected as part of The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory (SASSI) Institute’s third iteration of the Adolescent SASSI-A3. A total of 164 teenagers in treatment served as the dataset for the present study. All participant cases were provided by clinicians working in service settings throughout all U.S. Census Regions and serving in a variety of venues including substance use treatment, criminal justice programs, community corrections, private clinical practices, behavioral health centers, and social service organizations.
We present two brief de-identified treatment case studies, aptly demonstrating defensiveness and denial from a clinical standpoint. Additionally, we review cases demonstrating high-levels of defensiveness and denial in mandated teen clients, and ethical ways to break through that barrier to treatment engagement.
Working with teens can be extremely difficult given their rapid mood changes, intensely felt experiences and shifting states of compliance, openness and defiance. When teens are mandated for treatment, they may often feel their choices have been taken away and the counselor may be viewed as more of a power authority rather than a concerned and helping figure. Contingencies
placed on the teen as part of the mandated treatment experience are generally the primary focus, rather than addressing their underlying substance use disorder (SUD). As a result, the teen, as well as the counselor, require greater focus than just making sure those requirements are met.
Mandated treatment; Adolescent addiction; SASSI-A3; Defensiveness; Denial; Teen drug use.
Spirituality has been recognized as an important factor similar to hope and social support for improved quality of life (QoL) and survival rate in cancer patients. Literature has also demonstrated a higher relationship of survival rate, with higher spiritual intelligence and hope levels in cancerous patients than non-patients. Spiritual intelligence needs to be explored more deeply, to better understand how this construct affects cancer survival rates.
Spirituality; Cancer diagnosis; Hope; Spiritual intelligence; Social support.
This is a narration about observations on biases and cultural disquiets experienced in my personal and professional life both in my own birth place as well as in my country i.e., New Zealand where I currently live. In the following paragraphs, my personal experiences on biases has been described. Many academics have already written extensively about the types of biases I discuss in their research papers. My professional career has lasted for the past 43-years. Out of 43-years, 27-years have been spent in New Zealand, where I have worked in around 17 organisations. The time span covered is from May 1994 till now. Following questions are in my contemplation: Why are people so biased? What does it feel like to be overlooked for your efforts or contributions? The ubiquitous nature of bias has been documented in the scientific literature, as well as how it is ingrained in human characteristics and attitudes. Is it possible to eliminate bias? Is there a way to mitigate the negative effects of bias that we as humans impose on one another?
Bias; Unconscious bias; Society; Culture; Organisation; Diversity and inclusion.
The substance abuse subtle screening inventory (SASSI) has been used successfully in correctional treatment settings and correctional screening since 1988. These screenings include outpatient evaluations of offenders within community settings, as well as assessments of incarcerated individuals within federal, state, city, and county correctional facilities. One key element towards reducing recidivism and reoffending, is that individuals receive treatment for substance use disorders (SUD’s) while in the correctional
system. While SUD is not the only contributing factor to criminality, it does significantly increase the likelihood of legal infraction and violations, placing these individuals at a higher risk of re-offending. Thus, identifying SUD as early as possible helps provide tailored treatment to those who need it, while simultaneously reducing the risk of future legal difficulties. Now in
its fourth iteration (SASSI-4), this article discusses the SASSI screening tools’ utility with criminal offenders and serving clinical needs, and reviews a case study of a young male’s clinical evaluation while incarcerated.
For this case study, we reviewed the SASSI-4 screening results of a 24-year-old male whom we will call “Bryon”. Bryon was in his 4th week of detention at a local mid-western jail in the United States. He was arrested after turning himself in for a prior domestic violence offense committed while under the influence of alcohol and for which he had fled the state. Bryon had one prior arrest (for receiving stolen property, which he subsequently traded for drugs). The intake counselor conducting Bryon’s assessment had been meeting with him at the jail for several weeks. The court was particularly interested in determining the level of risk that Bryon would again flee the area.
This case presents us with a good example of the value of early identification of substance use disorder, and potential problems in criminal justice settings. Bryon’s SASSI results clearly demonstrate a well-established pattern of substance misuse that will require relatively intensive intervention. Therefore, he may be a solid candidate for diversion into an alcohol and drug treatment program as a way of reducing the risk of future offenses.
Subtle SUD screening; The SASSI Institute; Criminal offenders; Corrections; Recidivism; Alcohol and drug screening.
The authors consider themselves organizational and leadership developers. They have been active in the corporate world for a long time, working and consulting. Their work is based on morphological psychology, a psychological approach developed by Wilhelm Salber, that aims at understanding behavior as it is in constant state of change. It is not about measuring and explaining, but about describing and understanding how things interact and change. With its comprehensive approach in describing everyday life, morphological psychology is an excellent tool for examining and understanding corporate culture. In this book, the authors examine what constitutes leadership in the corporate work environment psychologically, how “change” is managed, and what happens between “perfection” and “explosion” in leadership.
Medical and psychological literature finds that empathy is crucial in the doctor-patient relationship, and that in the last 30-years there has been a decrease among college students, particularly medical students. After the passing of Hurricane María in Puerto Rico, many medical professionals migrated, leaving the island with fewer specialists to teach the remaining medical community. This is the first such study conducted with medical students in Puerto Rico. It examines the perception of empathy from the medical student perspective amidst the particular historical context of a national emergency.
Three instruments were used: The Jefferson Scale of Empathy (Student Spanish Version) (JSE-S), Arrogance Scale (AS) and Social Desirability Scale. A Non-Experimental Correlational Exploratory study was carried out with 200 medical students (55.5% female; 44.5% male), who were coursing third (45.5%) or fourth year (54.5%), from three major medical schools on the island. The students signed informed consents and also answered sociodemographic questions.
The JSE-S demonstrated an acceptable internal consistency reliability (α=0.79) with 11 items and three underlying factors. Female students showed higher empathy scores than their male counterparts (M=73.96 vs. M=70.22, p=0.001). The JSE-S and the AS were inversely correlated. Results support that social desirability is not statistically significant as a moderator between empathy and arrogance. Significant differences were found on arrogance scores pertaining to medical specialty and on religious background. Empathy and arrogance were unrelated to age, coursing year, income or university of precedence.
Raising awareness about the importance of empathy through positive role modeling, interpersonal dynamics and valuing the doctor-patient relationship through the formative years of medical school is recommended.
Empathy; Jefferson Scale of Empathy; Medical students; Puerto Rico; Arrogance; Social desirability.
This article examines one key aspect of the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory (SASSI) Institute’s forthcoming third iteration of the Adolescent Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory (SASSI-A3). Overall project aims were to revise the second version of the adolescent SASSI (SASSI-A2), and to update new symptom-related identifiers of substance use disorders in adolescents according to the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) guidelines.
We added new questions regarding cannabidiol (CBD) edible consumption and the extent of vaping to review and subsequently address these dangers in teens. Identifying these patterns will inevitably direct the course of subsequent clinical interviews and treatment planning. Early intervention is a critical component towards preventing possible negative outcomes for substance misusing teens.
This aspect of the research demonstrated a connection between a higher acknowledged usage pattern of teens in treatment versus teens not in treatment. Correlations between beliefs associated with marijuana legalization, marijuana usage by family and friends, tobacco use, connection between age at first use, and the onset of regular usage patterns were also shown to be significantly higher among teens in treatment.
Teens that begin using alcohol, drugs, and tobacco early in adolescence are more likely to engage in vaping and edible usage. They are also more likely to use at a more frequent rate. In addition, teens who are surrounded by family and friends who engage in marijuana use are more likely to be supportive of its recreational use and legalization. This acknowledged information on the SASSI-A3 can help direct treatment planning early in the counseling relationship and provide a gateway for bringing family in the treatment and education process.
Adolescents; Vaping; Edibles; Tobacco; Marijuana; Cannabis.
The current article contains compilation of significant contributions done by theorists over the years about the phenomenon of perinatal loss. The objective of this paper is to provide information about important emotional and psychological consequences on parents who suffer stillbirth. This article addresses identity issues of the mother, father, and their relationship as a couple. It also provides information on the psychological, emotional, and legal aftermath of healthcare professionals who assist during the process of loss.
Patient-child; Healthcare professionals; Child death.
Empathy in social work is one of the most important factors that can bring change in the patient, by developing a productive relationship. The purpose of this study is to explore empathy in the practice of social work, as it is used by professional social workers.
Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 social workers in public health services in Crete. Responses were recorded, and content analysis was used to analyze the data.
There were differences in the way that social workers perceive the concept of empathy, depending on their prior experiences. It was also found that they are more “sensitive” when patients have a common problem with them. Among the difficulties that prevented them from being empathetic was having “a difficult personal period” that affected their work. This study has also identified the importance of professional training for the development of empathy skills, and the key-role of work experience. Moreover, it highlighted the importance of co-operation between the researchers and the social workers for generating efficacious and valuable information.
This study emphasizes the importance of empathy as a necessary skill in the relationship between social workers and patients, and the need for in-depth scientific research and analyze on this issue in Greece.
Difficulties; Obstacles; Empathy; Social worker; Skill; Patient.
Professor Emeritus of Psychology Psychology DepartmentUniversity of La Verne 1950 Third Street La Verne, California 91750, USA
Professor Department of Teacher Training Volgograd State Pedagogical University Volgograd, Russia
Associate Professor Candidate of Pedagogic Sciences Bogdanovich street 120, Apt. 50 Minsk, 220040, Belarus
Professor Department of Economics Dagestan State UniversityRussian Federation, Republic of Dagestan Makhachkala, Russia
Professor of Psychology Western Washington University 516 High Street Bellingham, WA 98225, USA
ProfessorDepartment of General Social SciencesFaculty of Social SciencesUniversity of Puerto Rico San Juan 00902, Puerto Rico;Clinical Psychology ProgramAlbizu UniversitySan Juan Campus 00902, PR