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Population knowledge and attitudes toward health insurance are important factors that facilitate health insurance coverage. National studies on these parameters are limited.
This study aims at assessing determinants of non-insurance in A-Duiem Administrative Unit and calculating as a secondary objective the household’s health insurance coverage.
The study was a descriptive cross-sectional community-based conducted in A-Duiem Administrative Unit, Sudan. It collected quantitative data from non-insured households and qualitative data by interviewing community leaders and conducting focus group discussions with community organizations members. Quantitative data analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20, and the thematic analysis for the qualitative data.
The study interviewed 419 non-insured households’ heads and thirteen community leaders and conducted eight focus group discussions with sixty community organizations members. Around 37.9% (95% CI: 33.4-42.7) of the heads of the non-insured households did not know the health insurance, while only 2.4% (95% CI: 1.5-4.7) had good knowledge. The knowledge of non-insured community leaders and members of the community organizations was moderate. The study participants showed positive attitudes towards health insurance, as 97% (95% CI: 95.1-98.4) of the heads of the non-insured households wanted to join the health insurance and 65% (95% CI: 59.2-70.1) of them stated that they could pay its premium. Most of the community leaders and members of the community organizations had health insurance cards. Those who were not enrolled, have limited knowledge about health insurance while almost all believe they should join it. The study identified 52.4% of non-insured households (95% CI: 48.9-55.8). The study showed low health insurance coverage among families, despite their positive attitude. This is mostly attributed to poor awareness of the heads of the non-insured households about health insurance. The National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) should address this gap through effective communication strategies using motivated community institutions.
Health insurance; Non-insured; Population coverage; Knowledge; Attitudes; Sudan.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, started in the Hubei province of China in December 2019. On January 31, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a worldwide pandemic. We wondered what countries in Africa and South-East Asia had done to prevent infectious disease, specifically, COVID-19, from impacting the population of specific countries in that region, and what disease control measures were successful. Expert reflections on findings could guide continued successful public health approaches in managing this complex infectious disease pandemic.
Using a scoping review, published papers, or program descriptions for specific geographic regions (i.e., Africa or Southeast Asia) were searched using specified key terms. Three targeted countries classified by World Bank as lower-middle-income in the two WHO selected regions [Africa (Sudan and Nigeria); Southeast Asia (India)] were reviewed with respect to COVID19 preparedness and response. Findings were organized, highlighting key points that seem particularly useful for regional learning. The evidence from each region was summarized in the aggregate to determine some common, noteworthy themes. COVID-19 epidemiologic data for these regions were also reviewed.
Our findings indicate experience from prior infectious disease outbreak seems to have prepared the selected countries in their preparedness for COVID-19 outbreak on various levels. Incidence of COVID-19 increased across the selected countries. WHO recommended basic public health strategies to reduce disease transmission was initiated by the selected countries at different levels. However, feasibility and lockdown practices raise public health concerns and questions across the target regions reviewed.
This scoping review and expert reflections uncovers important preparedness and responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in the selected WHO regions. Further exploration and possible public health strategic plans may be needed.
COVID-19 Pandemic; Health system; Preparedness and response; Sub-Saharan Africa; Southeast Asia; Developing countries.
The paper investigates the main ideas and solutions of healthcare systems in leading countries such as Switzerland, the Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, Austria, France based on the international ranking indexes such as the United Nations Human Development Index, Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI), Blumberg’s Global Health Index, World Health Organization (WHO), The Healthcare Access & Quality Index (HAQ), the European Health Consumer Index (EHCI). In conclusion, the health of
society depends to a great extent on lifestyle and climate, where such countries as Spain and Italy have fewer sick people, and it results in a lower burden on healthcare. Unites States of America healthcare must compensate for lifestyle defects with intensive treatment and expensive medicines. This costs money and, what is worse, it doesn’t bring any noticeable progress. As evidenced by the dramas caused by the 2020 pandemic.
Healthy life; Healthy lifestyle; American healthcare; Healthcare indexes.
To gain further insights into factors associated with harmful alcohol consumption patterns and other associated behaviours among Malaysians millennials.
The United States Centre for Disease, Control, and Prevention (CDC) Youth Risk Behaviour Survey was adapted and translated into Bahasa Malaysia language. The self-administered questionnaire collected information on socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviours associated with alcohol consumption. Multi-facet sampling was used to recruit participants across six sites in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. There were 326 respondents: 103 Malays, 111 Chinese and 112 Indians; with 171 (52%) male and 155 (48%) female.
Mean age of the respondents was 21-years. Twenty percent of the millennials surveyed were binge consumers: 79% of binge drinkers were male. More than half (54%) of the binge drinkers were Indians followed by Chinese at 39% and Malays at 8%. Binge consumers were at increased odds (OR=7.58: 95% CI=3.88-14.80) of driving a vehicle under the influence of alcohol and at increased odds (OR=6.88: 95% CI=3.40-13.90) of being driven by someone drunk. Those who were binge drinkers were also at higher odds than non-drinkers of being forced into sexual intercourse (OR=3.16: 95% CI=1.25-7.97) or other sexual acts (OR=3.84: 95% CI=1.74-8.47). Binge drinkers were also more prone to smoking compared to current drinkers (OR=10.82 9% CI=4.85-24.12).
Binge consumption among millennials was associated with a myriad of behavioural risk factors and harmful alcohol-related consequences. Multiple strategic approaches are needed that address respective cultural norms, enhancement of millennials socialisation and engagement skills within communities to improve the efficacy of preventive interventions.
Alcohol; Communities; Malaysia; Risky behaviours; Social; Youth.
Biofilms are a significant threat to public health as they form on medical devices, wastewater pipes, human tissue, and stagnant water bodies. The primary reason biofilms are hard to combat is the bacterial interactions that take place within the biofilm through quorum sensing (QS), a form of cell-to-cell communication that plays a crucial role in the formation of biofilms. The QS controls biofilm formation to increase cooperation and stabilize the biofilm and increased interactions between the bacterial cells, make the biofilms harder to destroy. The aggregates of cells in the biofilm are not susceptible to drugs. The slow dividing cells are less susceptible to antibiotics.
The aim of this comparative study is to research the potential and effectiveness of treatments to combat the growth of biofilm formed by Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes by using two approaches: medicinal plant extract of Taraxacum officinale and probiotics.
This was a comparative study in which bacterial biofilms of E. coli and E. aerogenes were grown. Each biofilm was treated with a probiotic solution or Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) extract. The effectiveness of each treatment was measured through zones of isolation.
A standard t-test was run to compare the results of two groups of means for each bacteria. For E. aerogenes, the probiotic solution was more effective than dandelion extract with a t-value of 5.5 and a p-value of 0.0003, which is less than a p-value of 0.05. For E. coli, the probiotic solution was more effective than dandelion extract with a t-value of 6.5, and the p-value is less than 0.05. Results show that the probiotics treatment was more effective in destroying the biofilms than the Taraxacum officinale extract, but both treatments showed effective bactericidal properties.
Data from the trials were compared to traditional antibiotics for each of the bacteria, E. coli and E. aerogenes. These two methods of destruction are possible solutions to the threat the biofilms pose. If these research methods prove to be effective, they will be instrumental in combating the biofilms that lead to complications. These are promising solutions for reverting the threat that biofilms pose to public health and ecosystems.
Bacteria; Biofilms; Extract; Public health; Quorum sensing.
The impact of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in the U.S. to date is staggering and Blacks across the country are being infected and dying at rates far in excess of Whites. Although health disparities have been part of America’s reality for decades, the pandemic has exposed the failure of the healthcare system to adequately serve minority patients. There are immediate solutions that can help to balance the inequity now and position us well for the future. Five suggested solutions are described which focus on greater inclusion of Blacks in activities such as clinical trials, encouraging community-based resources and providing comprehensive racial data on COVID-19 cases. We are not all in the fight against COVID-19 together. Solutions must be adopted to help to address the current disparities now as well as beyond the immediate crisis.
Health disparities; COVID-19; Minorities; Health equity; Black communities.
The current study was conducted to assess chemical and drug use in dairy farms of Hawassa town, Southern Ethiopia.
Methods and Materials
A total of 45 dairy farms were selected based on the willingness of the owner and the availability of information using a cross-sectional study from December 2017 to April 2018. Besides, data were collected through a questionnaire survey and close observation.
Accordingly, based on observational assessment, most farms commonly used savlon (88.9%) iodine (60%) and detergent (20%) as antiseptics. Albendazole was the common anthelmintic by all dairy farms. Besides, Diazinon is used as acaricides (51.1%) and 57.8% of farms used sulfa drugs as an antiprotozoal agent. Similarly, all dairy farms in the study area used penicillin-streptomycin combination injection and ampicillin-cloxacillin combination for the treatment of mastitis. Based on a questionnaire assessment on 24 animal health assistants from different farms in of the study area, most (79.2%) did not remind owners to avoid the use or sale of animal products during withdrawal time. Out of the total, 27 (60%) of them offer or sell products to the public from animals treated with any of drugs without holding the withdrawal period of the drug.
The current study revealed that there was a high risk of drug and chemical residues in dairy products in the study area which can be a great threat to public health. Consequently, awareness creation through mass education, training and extension service should be promoted in the study area in order to ensure better chemical and drug use and minimize its public health hazards.
Assessment; Chemicals; Dairy farms; Drugs; Milk.
Some clinical medicine, public health, and health systems administration professionals recognize the role of data in identifying conditions that could be used in the diagnosis and treatment of individuals, as well as, in the development of public health policies or allocation of resources to prevent disease and promote health in populations. Data is important to assess the efficacy of a public health or health system program. In this short communication, key terms of public health, population health, and population health management are defined and, then, a role for data analytics is described to help health system administrators with population health management activities.
Public health; Population health; Population health management; Data analytics; Health system administration.
Jagiellonian University Medical College
Swietej Anny 12
31-008 Krakow, Poland
Planning and International Health Directorate
Federal Ministry of Health
Nile St, Khartoum, Sudan
Pediatrician- Infectious Diseases Specialist
Head, Department for Interventions in Health Care Facilities
Hellenic Center for Disease Control and Prevention
Αγράφων 3-5, Athens 151 23, Greece