Volume 6, Issue 2

  • 2021, September

    short communication

    Helping Public Health Decision-Makers Refine Community Coronavirus Disease-2019 Vaccination Efforts–Association between Confirmed Coronavirus Disease-2019 Cases and VaccinationsOpen Access

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    Abstract [+]

    Introduction
    The response to the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) epidemic included biomedical and vaccine research as well as identification of COVID-19 cases, contact tracing, community health promotion and disease prevention and community vaccination. The COVID-19 vaccinations remind public health professionals and non-professionals alike of this essential public health intervention for controlling infectious diseases. Actions that seek to improve existing vaccination efforts are equally important for effective public health programming.
    Methods
    Secondary data analysis uses an ecological study design to examine any possible associations between the number of COVID-19 cases identified at medical facilities (facility names not identified) within a healthcare system and the number of COVID-19 vaccinations administered within the system and reflect upon the findings for public health action. A loess curve was plotted to help to identify if a curvature pattern was present in a scatter plot.
    Results
    The statistical algorithm for the loess curve identified a curvature pattern. All plots showed that values became more separated in moving from left to right.
    Discussion
    This aggregate pattern in number of COVID-19 cases and number of vaccinations administered might be present in other public health settings or healthcare systems. Four refinements were proposed to help public health decision-makers to improve vaccination efforts: explore the reasons for differences in COVID vaccination given the number of confirmed COVID cases between
    facilities; provide vaccination outside traditional settings; facilitate public health and primary care partnerships for community vaccination; and address vaccine knowledge-gaps in the community and other barriers to vaccination.
    Keywords
    COVID-19 vaccination; Refining vaccination efforts; Public health decision-makers; Public health and primary care partnerships; Ecological study; Loess curve.


  • 2021, November

    original research

    A Study on the Role of Public Health in Reducing the Abuse of Ambulance ServicesOpen Access

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    Background
    Demand for emergency medical services or ambulance response is situated within the context of other healthcare and social welfare services. Worldwide ambulance providers have a wide variety of services available, but many services are struggling to meet service demand. Inappropriate use of ambulance services is one of the biggest concerns globally. The burden of using the ambulance services includes transporting non-critical patients to the hospital. Misuse of the ambulance services is a serious problem that must be addressed and solved.
    Objective
    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the public perception of appropriate usage of ambulance services and determine the applicable role of public health to reduce the inappropriate use of an ambulance.
    Methodology
    A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect data from the general public using an online survey. The survey contains 9 questions that evaluate the public awareness of appropriate ambulance use. Participants are people from the public within the age of 18 and above.
    Sample Size
    A total of N=97 of participants’ responses were used to analyze the data.
    Inclusion Criteria
    Complete surveys and answer data using the English language.
    Exclusion Criteria
    Uncompleted surveys, and answered with other languages.
    Results
    During the online survey, a total of n=97 participants enrolled voluntarily. The majority of the residents are aware of when to and whom to call in case of a medical emergency. N=35 (36%) of the participants believe that ambulance services are misused.
    Conclusion
    The conducted study demonstrated that almost 36% of participants believed abuse of ambulance services, though there might be numerous reasons for calling ambulance unnecessary. Public health plays a vital role to reduce inappropriate ambulance calls when both ambulance services and public health are integrated into one system of care.
    Keywords
    Public health; Ambulance services; Emergency medical services (EMS); Emergency care pathway; Misuse of ambulance services; Paramedic; Scope of public health in EMS.


  • 2021, December

    original research

    Assessing the Private Sector and Civil Society Engagement in Poliomyelitis Myelitis Vaccination among Internally Displaced People in Khartoum State, 2019Open Access

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    Background
    Poliomyelitis is an oro-fecal vaccine preventable disease affecting mainly children under five-years-old and is prevalent in poor sanitation and hygiene environment. The World Health Organization (WHO) stressed the need for coordination between the public and the non-governmental (particularly private) sectors to increase the coverage with immunization. This study aims to assess the private sector and civil society engagement in the implementation of poliomyelitis vaccination among internally displaced people and irregular settlement in Khartoum. Specifically, the study aimed to identify the major gaps in immunization program among internally displaced people (IDP), and to determine the enablers and barriers for the private sector and civil society active engagement in the immunization program.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study used both quantitative and qualitative methods. Data was collected from the health facilities mangers and the expanded program of immunization (EPI) service providers at private and civil society’s facilities in the targeted areas using a semi-structured interview guideline and a self-administered questionnaire respectively. The obtained quantitative data was coded and then analyzed using the statistical package for social science (SPSS version 21) and presented using tables. For qualitative part, all data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a thematic analysis, paying particular attention to axes of difference, including gender, private center and non-governmental organization.
    Results
    The major gaps were the insufficient number of health facilities together with uneven distribution of the available ones, and unclear mandate of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and private sector in EPI programme. Most of the managers complained from the lack of human resources for vaccination but stressed on the fact that training of the existing staff made the availability of the service easier. Twelve (12) out of 23 health facilities visited by the field team where in areas that do not have electricity or water supply which imposed more efforts to preserve the vaccines.
    Conclusion
    Private and civil societies were not well utilized by EPI program in Khartoum, Sudan. A clear mandate for engagement and periodic training for the service providers is highly needed.
    Keywords
    Private sector; Civil societies; Poliomyelitis vaccination; Internally displaced people (IDP).


  • 2021, December

    retrospective study

    Developing a Probit Regression Model for Estimating the Chance of Mortality for Coronavirus Disease-2019 PatientsOpen Access

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    Rational
    Although the number of deaths of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is decreasing over the world due to vaccination process, but appearing its new variants remain it as the remarkable challenge for health authorities.
    Purpose
    The aim of this study is to develop a probit regression model to estimate the chance of mortality for the patients infected to COVID-19.
    Methodology
    The contributing factors of age, symptoms and underlying diseases have been considered as independent variables as well as the clearance type of death as dependent variable have been studied for estimating the mortality rate. Patients have been divided into two categories; 1) recovered or transferred and 2) death, followed by developing a probit regression model by the well-known technique of Max likelihood method.
    Data Collection
    Data have been collected for 1015 patients tested positively to COVID-19 and subsequently received clinical treatment or intensive care.
    Conclusion
    The results revealed the model is capable of estimating the chance of mortality based on age, symptoms and underlying diseases. As implication, the health authorities ultumately can estimate the patient mortality rate prior to admission procedures in hospitals.
    Keywords
    COVID-19; Mortality rate; Healthcare management; Probit regression; Maximum likelihood.