Volume 5, Issue 3

  • 2020, July

    original research

    Determinants of Non-Insurance in A-Duiem Administrative Unit, White Nile State, Sudan 2018Open Access

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    Abstract [+]

    Background

    Population knowledge and attitudes toward health insurance are important factors that facilitate health insurance coverage. National studies on these parameters are limited.

    Aim

    This study aims at assessing determinants of non-insurance in A-Duiem Administrative Unit and calculating as a secondary objective the household’s health insurance coverage.

    Methods

    The study was a descriptive cross-sectional community-based conducted in A-Duiem Administrative Unit, Sudan. It collected quantitative data from non-insured households and qualitative data by interviewing community leaders and conducting focus group discussions with community organizations members. Quantitative data analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20, and the thematic analysis for the qualitative data.

    Results

    The study interviewed 419 non-insured households’ heads and thirteen community leaders and conducted eight focus group discussions with sixty community organizations members. Around 37.9% (95% CI: 33.4-42.7) of the heads of the non-insured households did not know the health insurance, while only 2.4% (95% CI: 1.5-4.7) had good knowledge. The knowledge of non-insured community leaders and members of the community organizations was moderate. The study participants showed positive attitudes towards health insurance, as 97% (95% CI: 95.1-98.4) of the heads of the non-insured households wanted to join the health insurance and 65% (95% CI: 59.2-70.1) of them stated that they could pay its premium. Most of the community leaders and members of the community organizations had health insurance cards. Those who were not enrolled, have limited knowledge about health insurance while almost all believe they should join it. The study identified 52.4% of non-insured households (95% CI: 48.9-55.8). The study showed low health insurance coverage among families, despite their positive attitude. This is mostly attributed to poor awareness of the heads of the non-insured households about health insurance. The National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) should address this gap through effective communication strategies using motivated community institutions.

    Keywords

    Health insurance; Non-insured; Population coverage; Knowledge; Attitudes; Sudan.


  • 2020, August

    scoping review

    Scoping Review and Expert Reflections: Coronavirus Disease 2019 – Preparedness and Response in Selected Countries of East Africa, West Africa, and Southeast AsiaOpen Access

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    Abstract [+]

    Background

    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, started in the Hubei province of China in December 2019. On January 31, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a worldwide pandemic. We wondered what countries in Africa and South-East Asia had done to prevent infectious disease, specifically, COVID-19, from impacting the population of specific countries in that region, and what disease control measures were successful. Expert reflections on findings could guide continued successful public health approaches in managing this complex infectious disease pandemic.

    Method

    Using a scoping review, published papers, or program descriptions for specific geographic regions (i.e., Africa or Southeast Asia) were searched using specified key terms. Three targeted countries classified by World Bank as lower-middle-income in the two WHO selected regions [Africa (Sudan and Nigeria); Southeast Asia (India)] were reviewed with respect to COVID19 preparedness and response. Findings were organized, highlighting key points that seem particularly useful for regional learning. The evidence from each region was summarized in the aggregate to determine some common, noteworthy themes. COVID-19 epidemiologic data for these regions were also reviewed.

    Result

    Our findings indicate experience from prior infectious disease outbreak seems to have prepared the selected countries in their preparedness for COVID-19 outbreak on various levels. Incidence of COVID-19 increased across the selected countries. WHO recommended basic public health strategies to reduce disease transmission was initiated by the selected countries at different levels. However, feasibility and lockdown practices raise public health concerns and questions across the target regions reviewed.

    Conclusion

    This scoping review and expert reflections uncovers important preparedness and responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in the selected WHO regions. Further exploration and possible public health strategic plans may be needed.

    Keywords

    COVID-19 Pandemic; Health system; Preparedness and response; Sub-Saharan Africa; Southeast Asia; Developing countries.


  • 2020, August

    review

    The Review on the European and the United States Healthcare SystemsOpen Access

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    Abstract [+]

    The paper investigates the main ideas and solutions of healthcare systems in leading countries such as Switzerland, the Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, Austria, France based on the international ranking indexes such as the United Nations Human Development Index, Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI), Blumberg’s Global Health Index, World Health Organization (WHO), The Healthcare Access & Quality Index (HAQ), the European Health Consumer Index (EHCI). In conclusion, the health of
    society depends to a great extent on lifestyle and climate, where such countries as Spain and Italy have fewer sick people, and it results in a lower burden on healthcare. Unites States of America healthcare must compensate for lifestyle defects with intensive treatment and expensive medicines. This costs money and, what is worse, it doesn’t bring any noticeable progress. As evidenced by the dramas caused by the 2020 pandemic.

    Keywords
    Healthy life; Healthy lifestyle; American healthcare; Healthcare indexes.


  • 2020, October

    mini review

    Elderly People During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Epidemic: Selected ProblemsOpen Access

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    Abstract [+]

    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection mainly affected elderly patients in many countries. The care of elderly
    patients, especially in countries where the percentage of people over 65-years of age is significant, is an important public health problem now during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this review particular attention to the problem of proper nutrition of such patients was paid, which must be preceded by an appropriate assessment of their nutritional status. The important role of physical activity and adequate rehabilitation is highlighted. The care of elderly patients should be in line with the recommendations of the relevant scientific societies and international organizations in this respect.
    Keywords
    COVID-19; Elderly people; Malnutrition; Food insecurity; Nutritional risk; ESPEN recommendations; Physical activity.