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To gain further insights into factors associated with harmful alcohol consumption patterns and other associated behaviours among Malaysians millennials.
The United States Centre for Disease, Control, and Prevention (CDC) Youth Risk Behaviour Survey was adapted and translated into Bahasa Malaysia language. The self-administered questionnaire collected information on socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviours associated with alcohol consumption. Multi-facet sampling was used to recruit participants across six sites in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. There were 326 respondents: 103 Malays, 111 Chinese and 112 Indians; with 171 (52%) male and 155 (48%) female.
Mean age of the respondents was 21-years. Twenty percent of the millennials surveyed were binge consumers: 79% of binge drinkers were male. More than half (54%) of the binge drinkers were Indians followed by Chinese at 39% and Malays at 8%. Binge consumers were at increased odds (OR=7.58: 95% CI=3.88-14.80) of driving a vehicle under the influence of alcohol and at increased odds (OR=6.88: 95% CI=3.40-13.90) of being driven by someone drunk. Those who were binge drinkers were also at higher odds than non-drinkers of being forced into sexual intercourse (OR=3.16: 95% CI=1.25-7.97) or other sexual acts (OR=3.84: 95% CI=1.74-8.47). Binge drinkers were also more prone to smoking compared to current drinkers (OR=10.82 9% CI=4.85-24.12).
Binge consumption among millennials was associated with a myriad of behavioural risk factors and harmful alcohol-related consequences. Multiple strategic approaches are needed that address respective cultural norms, enhancement of millennials socialisation and engagement skills within communities to improve the efficacy of preventive interventions.
Alcohol; Communities; Malaysia; Risky behaviours; Social; Youth.
Biofilms are a significant threat to public health as they form on medical devices, wastewater pipes, human tissue, and stagnant water bodies. The primary reason biofilms are hard to combat is the bacterial interactions that take place within the biofilm through quorum sensing (QS), a form of cell-to-cell communication that plays a crucial role in the formation of biofilms. The QS controls biofilm formation to increase cooperation and stabilize the biofilm and increased interactions between the bacterial cells, make the biofilms harder to destroy. The aggregates of cells in the biofilm are not susceptible to drugs. The slow dividing cells are less susceptible to antibiotics.
The aim of this comparative study is to research the potential and effectiveness of treatments to combat the growth of biofilm formed by Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes by using two approaches: medicinal plant extract of Taraxacum officinale and probiotics.
This was a comparative study in which bacterial biofilms of E. coli and E. aerogenes were grown. Each biofilm was treated with a probiotic solution or Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) extract. The effectiveness of each treatment was measured through zones of isolation.
A standard t-test was run to compare the results of two groups of means for each bacteria. For E. aerogenes, the probiotic solution was more effective than dandelion extract with a t-value of 5.5 and a p-value of 0.0003, which is less than a p-value of 0.05. For E. coli, the probiotic solution was more effective than dandelion extract with a t-value of 6.5, and the p-value is less than 0.05. Results show that the probiotics treatment was more effective in destroying the biofilms than the Taraxacum officinale extract, but both treatments showed effective bactericidal properties.
Data from the trials were compared to traditional antibiotics for each of the bacteria, E. coli and E. aerogenes. These two methods of destruction are possible solutions to the threat the biofilms pose. If these research methods prove to be effective, they will be instrumental in combating the biofilms that lead to complications. These are promising solutions for reverting the threat that biofilms pose to public health and ecosystems.
Bacteria; Biofilms; Extract; Public health; Quorum sensing.
The impact of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in the U.S. to date is staggering and Blacks across the country are being infected and dying at rates far in excess of Whites. Although health disparities have been part of America’s reality for decades, the pandemic has exposed the failure of the healthcare system to adequately serve minority patients. There are immediate solutions that can help to balance the inequity now and position us well for the future. Five suggested solutions are described which focus on greater inclusion of Blacks in activities such as clinical trials, encouraging community-based resources and providing comprehensive racial data on COVID-19 cases. We are not all in the fight against COVID-19 together. Solutions must be adopted to help to address the current disparities now as well as beyond the immediate crisis.
Health disparities; COVID-19; Minorities; Health equity; Black communities.
The current study was conducted to assess chemical and drug use in dairy farms of Hawassa town, Southern Ethiopia.
Methods and Materials
A total of 45 dairy farms were selected based on the willingness of the owner and the availability of information using a cross-sectional study from December 2017 to April 2018. Besides, data were collected through a questionnaire survey and close observation.
Accordingly, based on observational assessment, most farms commonly used savlon (88.9%) iodine (60%) and detergent (20%) as antiseptics. Albendazole was the common anthelmintic by all dairy farms. Besides, Diazinon is used as acaricides (51.1%) and 57.8% of farms used sulfa drugs as an antiprotozoal agent. Similarly, all dairy farms in the study area used penicillin-streptomycin combination injection and ampicillin-cloxacillin combination for the treatment of mastitis. Based on a questionnaire assessment on 24 animal health assistants from different farms in of the study area, most (79.2%) did not remind owners to avoid the use or sale of animal products during withdrawal time. Out of the total, 27 (60%) of them offer or sell products to the public from animals treated with any of drugs without holding the withdrawal period of the drug.
The current study revealed that there was a high risk of drug and chemical residues in dairy products in the study area which can be a great threat to public health. Consequently, awareness creation through mass education, training and extension service should be promoted in the study area in order to ensure better chemical and drug use and minimize its public health hazards.
Assessment; Chemicals; Dairy farms; Drugs; Milk.
Some clinical medicine, public health, and health systems administration professionals recognize the role of data in identifying conditions that could be used in the diagnosis and treatment of individuals, as well as, in the development of public health policies or allocation of resources to prevent disease and promote health in populations. Data is important to assess the efficacy of a public health or health system program. In this short communication, key terms of public health, population health, and population health management are defined and, then, a role for data analytics is described to help health system administrators with population health management activities.
Public health; Population health; Population health management; Data analytics; Health system administration.
Low socioeconomic status (SES) is one of the strongest predictors of morbidity and premature mortality worldwide, as well being associated with large increases in cardiovascular disease in both men and women. Uncontrolled hypertension contributes to cardiovascular disparity. Non-adherence to antihypertensive regimens worsens the cardiovascular burden and further widens the health disparity gap. A hierarchical multiple regression study of multiple factors impacting adherence among urban residents in a New York metropolitan region found socioeconomic factors as the strongest factors impacting adherence in this cardiovascular high-risk population..
Secondary analysis of data of a cross-sectional, correlation design study of a dissertation study, with each of the SES variables analyzed against adherence and self-efficacy variables.
Overall, only three SES variables (years with the same provider, work status and income) were significantly related to adherence and/or self-efficacy. Years with the same provider was related to adherence with correlation of rs=0.16 (p=0.048), and to self-efficacy rs=2.0 (p=0.016). Work status was related to adherence with difference in adherence scores between retired and unemployed subjects (KS=38.6, p=0.013 with Bonferroni adjustment; means=3.7 and 3.3, respectively). Work status was not related to selfefficacy scores. Income level was significantly related to the self-efficacy scores, but not the adherence scores. Difference noted between earners<$10,000/year and >$80,000/year (KS=-44.2, p=0.037, with Bonferroni adjustment; means=3.06 and 3.51, respectively).
Low socioeconomic status and non-adherence to antihypertensive regimens remain important factors which worsen cardiovascular health and widen health disparity health gaps. This is evident among the cardiovascular high-risk persons of African descent including those residing in the New York metropolitan regions. Self-efficacy is implicated as a mediating variable between income and adherence. The inverse relationship between fulltime work status and adherence was no longer noted. Further investigation on the associations between income, full time status and adherence among young, hypertensive Blacks/African Americans; as well as self-efficacy mediating effects on income and adherence is recommended.
Socioeconomic status or poverty or low income; Adherence or compliance; Hypertension treatment or hypertension therapy; Blacks or African Americans.
Healthcare providers and clinicians such as athletic trainers and physical therapists utilize therapeutic modalities to administer treatment to patients in the clinical setting. It is the responsibility of these healthcare providers to ensure the safe use of therapeutic modalities during treatment sessions, as well as effective delivery of treatment. Thermal-heat, ultrasound, cryotherapy and electrostimulation treatments have the potential for causing harm to patients. Proper care and maintenance of modalities can minimize the risk to patients and avoid legal issues for physical therapists and athletic trainers. This article will explore some of the legal issues, case studies and reports as well as providing information on what healthcare providers can do to protect patients.
Risk management; Negligence; Malpractice; Best practices; Injury prevention; Athletic Trainer; Physical Therapists; Accreditation.
Plastics are polymers of higher molecular mass of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic solids used as inputs for industries. Over the last few years, the need for biodegradable plastics has led to extended significance due to the extreme use of plastics and increasing pressure being positioned on to be had capacities for plastic waste disposal. Lack of degradability and the closing of landfill sites as well as growing water and land pollutant problems have caused the situation about plastics. Plastics are causing great difficulty in environmental problems and consequently, this desires manufacturers to synthesize materials that do not have an impact on the environment. The use of microorganisms in the surrounding to metabolize the molecular shape of plastic materials to produce an inert humus-like material and this is much less dangerous to the surroundings, furthermore, expertise their interaction and
the biochemical adjustments they undergo are tremendously essential. In addition, the use of bio-active compounds coated with swelling materials ensures that once it is far mixed, with heat and moisture, they make bigger the plastics molecular structure and permit the bio-lively compounds to metabolize and neutralize the plastic. Thus, this overview article is revised to inspire and make an impact on the importance of microorganisms on biodegradation plastic substances.
Biodegradation; Microorganisms; Plastics; Pollution; Hazard.
Jagiellonian University Medical College
Swietej Anny 12
31-008 Krakow, Poland
Planning and International Health Directorate
Federal Ministry of Health
Nile St, Khartoum, Sudan
Pediatrician- Infectious Diseases Specialist
Head, Department for Interventions in Health Care Facilities
Hellenic Center for Disease Control and Prevention
Αγράφων 3-5, Athens 151 23, Greece