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The current study was conducted to assess chemical and drug use in dairy farms of Hawassa town, Southern Ethiopia.
Methods and Materials
A total of 45 dairy farms were selected based on the willingness of the owner and the availability of information using a cross-sectional study from December 2017 to April 2018. Besides, data were collected through a questionnaire survey and close observation.
Accordingly, based on observational assessment, most farms commonly used savlon (88.9%) iodine (60%) and detergent (20%) as antiseptics. Albendazole was the common anthelmintic by all dairy farms. Besides, Diazinon is used as acaricides (51.1%) and 57.8% of farms used sulfa drugs as an antiprotozoal agent. Similarly, all dairy farms in the study area used penicillin-streptomycin combination injection and ampicillin-cloxacillin combination for the treatment of mastitis. Based on a questionnaire assessment on 24 animal health assistants from different farms in of the study area, most (79.2%) did not remind owners to avoid the use or sale of animal products during withdrawal time. Out of the total, 27 (60%) of them offer or sell products to the public from animals treated with any of drugs without holding the withdrawal period of the drug.
The current study revealed that there was a high risk of drug and chemical residues in dairy products in the study area which can be a great threat to public health. Consequently, awareness creation through mass education, training and extension service should be promoted in the study area in order to ensure better chemical and drug use and minimize its public health hazards.
Assessment; Chemicals; Dairy farms; Drugs; Milk.
Some clinical medicine, public health, and health systems administration professionals recognize the role of data in identifying conditions that could be used in the diagnosis and treatment of individuals, as well as, in the development of public health policies or allocation of resources to prevent disease and promote health in populations. Data is important to assess the efficacy of a public health or health system program. In this short communication, key terms of public health, population health, and population health management are defined and, then, a role for data analytics is described to help health system administrators with population health management activities.
Public health; Population health; Population health management; Data analytics; Health system administration.
Low socioeconomic status (SES) is one of the strongest predictors of morbidity and premature mortality worldwide, as well being associated with large increases in cardiovascular disease in both men and women. Uncontrolled hypertension contributes to cardiovascular disparity. Non-adherence to antihypertensive regimens worsens the cardiovascular burden and further widens the health disparity gap. A hierarchical multiple regression study of multiple factors impacting adherence among urban residents in a New York metropolitan region found socioeconomic factors as the strongest factors impacting adherence in this cardiovascular high-risk population..
Secondary analysis of data of a cross-sectional, correlation design study of a dissertation study, with each of the SES variables analyzed against adherence and self-efficacy variables.
Overall, only three SES variables (years with the same provider, work status and income) were significantly related to adherence and/or self-efficacy. Years with the same provider was related to adherence with correlation of rs=0.16 (p=0.048), and to self-efficacy rs=2.0 (p=0.016). Work status was related to adherence with difference in adherence scores between retired and unemployed subjects (KS=38.6, p=0.013 with Bonferroni adjustment; means=3.7 and 3.3, respectively). Work status was not related to selfefficacy scores. Income level was significantly related to the self-efficacy scores, but not the adherence scores. Difference noted between earners<$10,000/year and >$80,000/year (KS=-44.2, p=0.037, with Bonferroni adjustment; means=3.06 and 3.51, respectively).
Low socioeconomic status and non-adherence to antihypertensive regimens remain important factors which worsen cardiovascular health and widen health disparity health gaps. This is evident among the cardiovascular high-risk persons of African descent including those residing in the New York metropolitan regions. Self-efficacy is implicated as a mediating variable between income and adherence. The inverse relationship between fulltime work status and adherence was no longer noted. Further investigation on the associations between income, full time status and adherence among young, hypertensive Blacks/African Americans; as well as self-efficacy mediating effects on income and adherence is recommended.
Socioeconomic status or poverty or low income; Adherence or compliance; Hypertension treatment or hypertension therapy; Blacks or African Americans.
Healthcare providers and clinicians such as athletic trainers and physical therapists utilize therapeutic modalities to administer treatment to patients in the clinical setting. It is the responsibility of these healthcare providers to ensure the safe use of therapeutic modalities during treatment sessions, as well as effective delivery of treatment. Thermal-heat, ultrasound, cryotherapy and electrostimulation treatments have the potential for causing harm to patients. Proper care and maintenance of modalities can minimize the risk to patients and avoid legal issues for physical therapists and athletic trainers. This article will explore some of the legal issues, case studies and reports as well as providing information on what healthcare providers can do to protect patients.
Risk management; Negligence; Malpractice; Best practices; Injury prevention; Athletic Trainer; Physical Therapists; Accreditation.
Plastics are polymers of higher molecular mass of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic solids used as inputs for industries. Over the last few years, the need for biodegradable plastics has led to extended significance due to the extreme use of plastics and increasing pressure being positioned on to be had capacities for plastic waste disposal. Lack of degradability and the closing of landfill sites as well as growing water and land pollutant problems have caused the situation about plastics. Plastics are causing great difficulty in environmental problems and consequently, this desires manufacturers to synthesize materials that do not have an impact on the environment. The use of microorganisms in the surrounding to metabolize the molecular shape of plastic materials to produce an inert humus-like material and this is much less dangerous to the surroundings, furthermore, expertise their interaction and
the biochemical adjustments they undergo are tremendously essential. In addition, the use of bio-active compounds coated with swelling materials ensures that once it is far mixed, with heat and moisture, they make bigger the plastics molecular structure and permit the bio-lively compounds to metabolize and neutralize the plastic. Thus, this overview article is revised to inspire and make an impact on the importance of microorganisms on biodegradation plastic substances.
Biodegradation; Microorganisms; Plastics; Pollution; Hazard.
Jagiellonian University Medical College
Swietej Anny 12
31-008 Krakow, Poland
Planning and International Health Directorate
Federal Ministry of Health
Nile St, Khartoum, Sudan
Pediatrician- Infectious Diseases Specialist
Head, Department for Interventions in Health Care Facilities
Hellenic Center for Disease Control and Prevention
Αγράφων 3-5, Athens 151 23, Greece