Volume 6, Issue 1
A Case Study Exploring Pre-Service Teachers’ Programming Difficulties and Strategies when Learning Programming Languages
PDF 368.66 KB
Understanding the importance of training young people, this study sought to explore the early experience of pre-service teachers in their computational practices in terms of the difficulties they faced and the strategies they used while learning how to program. Based on convenience sampling, four participants were recruited from an undergraduate course focusing on computer science education in K-12. The literature on novice programmers’ difficulties and their strategies was used to establish the conceptual background for this study. We collected four semi-structured interviews with pre-service teachers, a total of five hour-long classroom observations, and 19 class activities (archival data). After conducting a content analysis, findings showed four categories in which pre-service teachers face difficulties: (a) understanding the computational concepts (semantic); (b) using the concepts inappropriately (syntax); (c) developing a program (algorithmic thinking), and (d) identifying problems (debugging). We also found five categories in which pre-service teachers overcome their difficulties: planning, using resources, seeking support, guessing and checking, and looking for visual assistance. This study emphasized that pre-service teachers encounter several difficulties in learning computational concepts through programming languages, which should be considered in pre-service teacher education.
Computational Thinking; Computer science education; Pre-service teachers; Problem solving strategies.
Looking Back, Moving Forward: Reflection on Race and Racism
PDF 340.46 KB
This paper addresses the history of racism, its manifestation and its impact. It recognises that racism is both interpersonal and structural. It is embedded in the way society and organisations are structured, through policies and practices that disadvantage black people. It is important now to work towards racial justice for the sake of a better and shared future.
Racism; Race; Black lives matter; Psychotherapy; Belonging; Identity and black identity; Internalised racism; White racism.
brief research report
How Self-Reflection Influences Use of Cognitive and Analytical Language
PDF 338.28 KB
We examined cognitive processes and analytic expression according to emotional prime, hypothesizing that negative affect may increase rumination as seen in analytic language (that is, lead to language of “explaining”), as well as insight and causality, reflecting language focused on specific reasons.
Sixty-four participants were assigned randomly to write about either “positive aspects of myself ” or “aspects of myself that I would like to change”. These narratives about positive and negative characteristics were subjected to the linguistic inquiry and word count (LIWC) in order to examine how the manipulations influenced expression.
More insight and causation in language was seen in participants’ language that focused on positive (rather than negative) aspects of themselves, but more discrepancy was seen when writing about negative qualities. These findings were not a function of wordiness.
Causality and insight were prevalent in language after positive prompting, perhaps because people were providing rationale and support for positive self-talk. Discrepancy suggests counterfactual thought and was common in writing from a negative prompt.
Language use; Analytical language; Sex differences in linguistics.
The Tale of Two Schools: Investigating the Understanding of Mental Health by Students, Parents and Teachers in Rural and City Bangladesh
PDF 422.09 KB
The main aim of the study was to investigate the understanding and attitudes of mental health held by students, parents and teachers using strength and difficulty questionnaire (SDQ) scores and qualitative responses. Attitudes towards mental health and well-being are important as they can increase stigmatization and prevent young people seeking help and support.
To assess the understanding of mental health needs of students the SDQ was administered to parents (n=18; rural n=12 and city n=6), teachers (n=22; rural n=16 and city n=6), and students (n=23; rural n=17 and city n=6). In addition to this, semi-structured interviews were undertaking with students (n=14; rural n=9; city n=5) and parents (n=14; rural n=8; city n=6). Further, written narratives were received from teachers (n=12; rural n=6; city n=6). SDQ results were subjected to the non-parametric Mann Whitney-U with the Bonferroni correction applied and qualitative data was analysed using thematic analysis.
SDQ results showed students in the rural location had significantly higher mental health needs than those in the city location (p<0.017). Thematic analysis revealed that parents in the rural location do not understand the term ‘mental health’ and therefore, it is not seen as a problem despite high needs. Teachers in all locations and parents in city location have a limited understanding of what mental health means.
There is a lack of understanding about what mental health by parents in the rural community and a limited understanding of what mental health is by all teachers and parents within the city community. Even though high-SDQ scores were observed in both the rural and city location, SDQ scores were significantly higher in the rural location. These findings support the need for future mental health advocacy within Bangladesh schools.
Mental health; School; Bangladesh; Education.
Call for a ‘Live Third’: The Impact of Institutional and Psychiatric Racism on Adebayo’s Physical and Mental Health
PDF 341.23 KB
The author refers to a personal experience and feels it important to do so in order to highlight a crippling and appalling inhumanity by some towards black people. Much of what is written here is presented in the first person owing to the personal nature of the narrative. It manifests through stereotyping, stigmatisation, and racism towards non-white people. Racism is both institutional and interpersonal, and it is endemic. What gets played out in society is often repeated at an individual level. As a psychotherapist, the author affirms the need for clinical practitioners to move from a position of dismissal and objectification of Black lives, and to wake up to the terrifying fact of the early mortality of black people’s lives from the trauma of racism which is very much imbedded in institutional policies and procedures.
Black people; Trauma; Mental health; Psychiatric racism; Schizophrenia.