Work plays a vital role in most people’s lives, and thus the impact of stress in the workplace is a significant issue. Since organisational role stress (ORS) has detrimental effects on both the organisation and employee, managing role pressures has greater importance.
This study analysed the comparative organisational role stress between India’s public sector and private sector workers. It also fulfilled its objective of ranking stressors to contribute to total ORS.
Materials and Methods
This descriptive-comparative analytical study selected 92 employees (41 private sectors and 51 public sectors) from different organisations in India. The study administered the organisational role stress scale developed by Udai Pareek to employees of both groups. For analysis independent sample t-test were used in the study.
The study reveals that public sector employees score higher than private-sector employees in almost all scale dimensions other than role stagnation. Data analysis also inferred that inter-role stressor was the maximum contributor to overall organisational role stress, and the two groups differed most in the dimension of role overload.
These have important implications in policy-making to ensure enhanced well-being and productivity.
Stress; Organisational role stressors; Causes of stress; Workplace stress; Coping strategies; Public and private sector; The stress of Indian employees.
Most people believe in the freedom of their will, so they are convinced to decide their own voluntary actions, without being controlled by God, fate, or circumstances. Though, the cognitive success of a learning curve depends on a statistical correlation between the prior experience and the posterior effect. Since long ago, several scientific pieces of evidence denied the existence of free-will (FW). Our scientific work contributed to corroborating the idea that FW might be an illusion of the mind; then, the belief that our conscious mind might exhibit decisional ability without any form of external control, is nonsense. Since that, we may exclude that our conscious mind could host a “soul-inhabited self ” or a “ghost of the machine”; if anything, it could host a sort of witness with a specific critical sense towards incoming experiences. Then, the intriguing question was how the mind could anyway exhibit cognition and behavior. Our answer was that our mind emerges from the brain as a probabilistic-deterministic computational machine with a self-oriented, cognitive, autopoietic purpose; to this aim, a virtual Ego-FW binomial is genetically installed in the mind in place of a real, concrete, independent Ego-FW binomial. According to psychophysical “push-no-push” experiments, we observed that learning curves show classic Bayesian behavior, i.e. the positive experience of a trial will ameliorate the further one. Then, we concluded that the action decision mechanism is elaborated by a computational mechanism genetically installed in the brain of all people, while the experience gained in everyday life is the epigenetic force that modifies the memory archive, thus contributing to shaping personal identity (PI). The 1st-person perspective (1PP) and the 3rd-person perspective (3PP) play a crucial role in these processes. 1PP is the emotive, subjective side of the conscious mind; it deludes to decide and control the actions according to the freedom of its will but it may move around only as an avatar in a virtual game. On the contrary, 3PP is the objective and rational perspective of the conscious mind; it works as an external witness of the constrained activity of 1PP. Obviously, while reacting in response to a stimulus, the subject is on the 1PP side of the conscious mind; thus, she/he cannot accept the idea that FW might be an illusion; paradoxically, the false belief in FW is the necessary condition of the mind to get the best cognition and behavior. In conclusion, we have investigated these mechanisms of human cognition and behaviour in over 20-years of work; in the meanwhile, we have elaborated “The Bignetti Model”, a human cognitive model compatible with these results.
The Bignetti Model; Free-will illusion; Consciousness; Personal identity (PI); Action-decision mechanism; Voluntary action; Probabilistic-deterministic brain; Trials-and-errors strategy; Cause-and-effect law.
Objective: Technology is rapidly shifting our day-to-day existence, education, social relationships, health care and business. Psychiatric leaders have slowly explored telepsychiatric services – but few have an approach to technology in general–due to
competing clinical, educational and research demands. Technology has typically been added on, rather than integrated, to institutional functions.
Method: This narrative review used a literature search of Medline, PsycNET, PsycINFO, Embase, Cochrane, SpringerLink, Scopus, ABI/Inform, Business Source Complete, and Web of Science, using subject headings and keywords along with a manual search of reference lists of articles published by November 2020. The keywords explored four areas: 1) business; 2) service delivery; 3) system change; and 4) technology. Articles were reviewed by title/abstract, full text review and review of references. They were included if they discussed integration of technology into health care and compared literature from medicine/health, psychiatry/behavioral health, business, technology, leadership and health care administration. The goal was to explore how medicine/psychiatry has integrated technology compared to business, and apply business approaches to health care and training.
Results: From a total of 2,710 potential references, two authors found 327 eligible for full text review and found 69 papers directly relevant to the concepts. Business and medicine/psychiatry have similarities/differences from both historical and contemporary views. Many health care systems and companies lack a strategic plan for technology and focus only on short-term due to administrative demands. Clinical informatics is a rapidly expanding area and would be central to this process. It has started to facilitate patient-centered care as defined by quality, affordable, and timely health care. While in principle information systems use integrative approaches, electronic health records, electronic means of communications with patients and staff, behavioral health indicators and related digital advances are often added to existing systems rather than integrated. Effective businesses use integrative approaches to share domain knowledge and streamline practices to link information technology (IT) with research and development, production, financing and marketing management. A case example highlights the IT strategy and business leaders’ comments in shifting to straight through processing (STP) from the banking industry for investments. It also exemplifies a model of shared IT-business understanding, which improves performance via efficiency, quality of data/information processing/integration and managerial teamwork.
Conclusion: When it is integrated into health care service delivery workflow, evaluated and quality improved, IT facilitates the translation of strategic planning into organizational change. Incremental versus strategically innovative approaches to technological integration for care, education and administration are considered. Successful implementation requires a needs and impact assessment for patients, staff, clinicians and leaders across all levels of the organization. Benefits to the mission, limited disruptions of core operational workflow and reasonable costs reduce the likelihood of failure.
Health care; Business; Information technology; Shared; Leadership; Understanding; Straight through processing.
This qualitative study investigated the psychological effects on 21 U.S. high school students during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
The study aimed to identify and assess the pandemic’s effect on the mental health of these students.
To determine the stress and anxiety students faced during the pandemic, an online survey used five open-ended questions that focused on awareness of the pandemic surrounding the major themes of insight, stress, anxiety, social support, and adapted coping strategies. NVivo software analyzed the raw data. Colaizzi’s descriptive phenomenological analysis method converted the quantitative results into a visual/verbal form. Based on the analysis, the researcher identified the pandemic’s effects on students’ mental health and well-being.
All 21 participants responded to each of the five questions. Of the participants, 72% demonstrated a negative outlook on their future. Seventy percent (70%) of the participants felt that COVID-19 hurt their social life because of safety precautions, such has social distancing. Even though schools and their faculty tried to keep students engaged and active, 64% of the participants found it challenging to be physically distanced from friends and teachers while learning from home. Of the students, 62% worried about missing out on sports and activities canceled due to the pandemic. 63.14% of the students felt the pandemic stressed
them to the point that fear and anxiety overwhelmed them with many questions about the future.
This study’s results may help create programs that better meet students’ mental and social needs.
COVID-19; Pandemic; High school; College students; Mental health; Stress; Anxiety; Coping strategies; Depression.
Academic stress is a mental distress originated from the anticipated frustration associated with academic failure. Whereas, emotional intelligence (EI) is a characteristic of an individual that determines the degree, and intensity with which they are able to understand and accept one’s own emotions as well as that of others.
Aim and Objective
The broad aim of the present study was to investigate an empirical-based examination of the relationship among academic stress and EI in high school students. The objectives of the study were to ascertain if there exist any gender, family structure and single child differences between academic stress and EI.
This study is based on a quantitative analysis of the data. To collect validated data, purposive sampling was taken from varied streams and family structure of the age group 16 to 18-years; with no gender disparity. Student Academic Stress Scale (SASS) and emotional intelligence test (EIT) were used in this research. The data obtained was further validated through statistical techniques of correlation and analysis of variance (ANOVA) methods.
The results showed an inverse correlation between EI and academic stress in high school students. The study also revealed single child and family structure factors are associated with the level of EI and showed an impact on academic stress of high school students.
Academic stress; Emotional intelligence; High school students; Family structure.
The current study examined the impact of a non-governmental organization’s academic tutoring and mentoring program on the social-emotional learning (SEL) and subjective well-being of 240 marginalized young women.
One-hundred-fifty-nine currently enrolled 7-12th grade students with a mean age of 16.39, SD=1.55; 40 students who were enrolled in college with a mean age of 20.25, SD=1.57, and 25 who had graduated from college with a mean age of 22.48, SD=2.16 and their leaders participated.
All participants completed in a survey that assessed the degree of participants’ locus of control, expectations of success (self-efficacy), current goals and career-related aspirations and their satisfaction with their relationships and life in general. Twenty-one of the participants and all leaders also were interviewed.
Regression analyses revealed that both the participants’ self-management and the leader’s locus of control were significant predictors of the participants’ internal locus of control. Congruent with interview findings, latent structural equation analysis revealed that three manifest variables of social-emotional learning, “self-management”, “social awareness”, and “self-efficacy” had direct positive effects on participants’ subjective well-being (i.e., their satisfaction with life and relationships).
Culturally sensitive approaches to mentoring and training are needed and helpful. Future research should be carried out to mitigate design limitations and further the current study’s addition to the body of research on social-emotional learning and well-being.
Self-management; Self-efficacy; Social awareness; Social-emotional learning (SEL); Internal locus of control; Life satisfaction; Relationship satisfaction; Subjective well-being (SWB).
The purpose of the research was to build a scale of quality of working life, in telemarketers of a call center company in Downtown of Lima, with a sample of 700 telemarketers.
The methodology was obtained through a non-probabilistic convenience sampling, the validity was carried out through the judgment of 10 experts and the indices were obtained using the V. of Aiken p>0.80 and the Binomial test p<0.05 in 29 questions.
The construct validity was obtained through confirmatory factor analysis, to explain the quality of working life composed of five dimensions according to Maslow’s theory.
In the results, the Kaiser Meyer Olkin (KMO) measurement test yielded a value of 0.930, which means that it is greater than>0.80 over the number of observations for the base of respondents (700), for the test of Bartlett’s sphericity. is not significant
(p<0.05), which means a correlation between the variables, in the total variance explained indicates that the instrument has five factors that explain 54.982% of the total variance, it tells us that the test is acceptable, whose factorial the loads ranged between 0.4 and 0.8 respectively. The reliability by internal consistency with a value of 0.919.
The relevance of the theoretical model to explain the quality of working life composed of five dimensions according to Maslow’s theory was verified, showing adequate adjustment indices: X2/gl=4.920 and 4.711, CFI=0.835 and 0.90, RMSEA=0.075 and
0.073, except TLI=0.805 and 0.815 that did not show an adequate value.
Quality of work life; Quality-of-life; Design; Validation; Psychometry.
Associate Chief of Staff, Mental Health Northern California Veterans Affairs Health System10535 Hospital Way, Mather, CA 95655andProfessor, and Vice-Chair, Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral SciencesUniversity of California, Davis School of Medicine
Associate Professor Department of Clinical PsychologyThe Chicago School of Professional Psychology 617 W 7th Street Los Angeles, CA 90017, USA
Distinguished Associate Professor Department of School Psychology Faculty Council Chair-ChicagoThe Chicago School of Professional Psychology325 N. Wells Street #519 Chicago, IL 60654, USA
Professor of Psychology Member, Health Sciences Faculty Chair, Division of Social SciencesCoordinator, Cognitive & Brain Science Coordinator, Science, Health, & Values Wells College Aurora, NY 13026, USA