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  • 2020, January

    review

    Principles and Applications of Deoxyribonucleic Acid Microarray: A ReviewOpen Access

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    Abstract [+]

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) microarrays are collections of DNA probes arranged on a base pair and the latest commercialized molecular diagnostic technologies that offer high throughput results, more sensitive and require less time. It is the most reliable and widely accepted tool facilitating the simultaneous identification of thousands of genetic elements even a single gene. Microarrays are powerful new tools for the investigation of global changes in gene expression profiles in cells and tissues. The different types of DNA microarray or DNA chip devices and systems are described along with their methods of fabrication and their use. The DNA microarrays assembly process is automatized and further miniaturized. DNA microarrays are used in the search of various specific genes or in gene polymorphism and expression analysis. They will be widely used to investigate the expression of various genes connected with various diseases in order to find the causes of these diseases and to enable their accurate treatment. Generally, microarray analysis is not only applied for gene expression studies, but also used in immunology, genotyping, diagnostics and sequence analysis. Additionally, microarray technology being developed and applied to new areas of proteomics, cancer research, and cellular analysis.

    Keywords

    Application, DNA, Microarray, Principle.


  • 2019, November

    review

    Circulating Tumor Cells: Beyond Isolation and DetectionOpen Access

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    Abstract [+]

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are the precursors to metastases and increased numbers of CTCs in the peripheral circulation have been shown to correlate with decreased progression-free and overall survival. Although the current clinical utility has been focused on the prognostic significance, other clinical applications are being explored, such as determining if a patient is a candidate for treatment, determining the efficacy of treatment, evaluation for resistance to therapy, prediction of metastatic site, or as an early predictor of metastases. Current methodologies are based on quantifying CTCs and include technologies based on physical, immunological, and molecular techniques. However, these have limitations, of which most of them do not have the ability to perform morphological evaluation. Using morphological evaluation, CTCs in body fluids could be used for primary diagnosis in the setting of cancer of unknown primary (CUP) or in initial or early diagnostic scenarios. Additionally, cytological specimens have been shown to be useful for ancillary testing in patients when surgical resection specimens or biopsies are not available. Evaluation of CTCs should incorporate histological, immunehistochemical, and molecular characterization to enable clinicians to obtain the comprehensive diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic information necessary to provide appropriate personalized care to cancer patients.

    Keywords

    Circulating tumor cell (CTC); Circulating; Tumor cell; Cancer; Isolation; Detection; Metastasis; Prognosis.

    Abbreviations

    CTC: Circulating tumor cell; RT-PCR: Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction; EMT: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition; MET: Mesenchymal-epithelial transition; TRAIL: Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand; CEA: Carcinoembryonic antigen; CUP: Cancer of unknown primary; CAP: College of American Pathologists; AMP: Association for Molecular Pathology; ASCO: American Society of Clinical Oncology.


About the Journal

Pathology and Laboratory Medicine – Open Journal (PLMOJ) is an online open access journal that serves as a one-stop guide for pathology and laboratory medicine related topics and discussions.

Pathology is the study or examination of a particular disease and its behavior. It mainly caters to interpret the microscopic images of the ligaments or body tissues that cause, process the diseases and developed in the body of an individual. Experts who work in this field are called “Pathologists”.

Laboratory medicine is the field of medicine where specimens of body fluids, tissues, ligaments, etc. examined in clinical laboratories for the study of the treatment, cure, and prevention of the disease.

Openventio is dedicated to act as an open portal for all pathology and laboratory medicine professionals and students across the world.

Aims and Scope

Pathology and Laboratory Medicine – Open Journal aims to act as a medium for promoting better research, improvements, and advancement in the field, for various communities in the field.

PLMOJ covers a wide array of subjects as given below

  • Clinical pathology
  • Immunophenotypic characteristics of blood
  • Endocrine pathology
  • Gastrointestinal and liver pathology
  • Laboratory investigation
  • Laboratory trails on clinical specimen
  • Laboratory medicine
  • Modern pathology

Openventio aims to encourage documentation among the ever growing medical community to ensure data gets recorded and passed on to aspiring practitioners and researchers in the field.

Submissions for this journal are accepted from all practitioners and students of pathology and laboratory medicine, from experts to novices wanting to explore this area of research.

The audience of PLMOJ includes doctors, nurses, research assistants, local community practitioners, manufacturers, and students of various universities and general communities from different parts of the world.

The journal welcomes all types of articles such as original research, review, case-report, mini-review, editorial, short-communication, book review, opinion, commentary, letter to the editor, conference proceedings, technical report, errata, illustrations, etc.

We are open to receive comments and corrections from experts to improve the quality of our journal.