[ Download PDF ]
Post-discectomy iatrogenic lumbar pseudomeningoceles are an uncommon complication. This pathology is an extradural, encapsulated, cerebrospinal fluid collection which develops at the site of previous surgery as the consequence of an unnoticed or unrepairable dural tear. A pseudomeningocele is defined as giant if it grows beyond 8 cm in length. Giant iatrogenic pseudomeningoceles with detailed information are quite rare in the literature with only 21 reported cases including the current case. Herein, we present a middle age woman with a giant pseudomeningocele which had developed subsequent to L4-L5 discectomy.
Iatrogenic lumbar pseudomeningocele; Pathology; Discectomy.
Squamous cell carcinoma is a cancer that is rare in the hand. The extirpation of this cancer can leave an important cutaneous defect in many cases. The cutaneous covering at the back of the hand is a challenge for any surgeon, especially when there are large skin defects with exposure of tendons, bones or neurovascular structures. Here, we describe a clinical case where an adipofascial turnover forearm flap and full thickness skin graft were performed, after the extensive extirpation of the well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma has been made.
Flap; Adipofascial; Forearm; Hand; Skin defect; Carcinoma; Tumor; Squamous cell.
The study was aimed to assess the results of treatment for fracture-dislocations of the proximal humerus (PH) within different time frames for optimizing treatment tactics.
Patients and Methods
This retrospective cohort study evaluated clinical outcomes of 25 patients with fracture-dislocations of the PH (15 patients were analyzed for short- and medium-term results, and 10 – for long-term results). The follow-up period ranged from 1 to 9-years. All patients underwent: clinical examination, constant score assessment and shoulder X-ray examination. Clinical, radiological and statistical methods were used for analysis.
Assessment of the degree of initial displacement of tubercles and its impact on the results of treatment showed that significantly better results were obtained in case of displacement no more than 10 mm (p=0.041). Patients with displacement no more than 10 mm had an average score of 68.0±16.1 points (Mean=69.5), while those with displacement of the tubercle(s) exceeding 10 mm had an average score of 49.5±19.5 points (Mean=44). Analysis of the results of treatment showed that the delay in restoring normal anatomy of the PH or avoiding surgical interventions at all led to functional disorders of the shoulder joint. It was also demonstrated that neither patients, nor doctors were satisfied with the outcomes of the unipolar shoulder replacement (USR). Based on the results of the study, we proposed an algorithm for determining the tactics of surgical treatment in cases when a fracture-dislocation of the PH with complete dislocation of the fragment involving the articular surface of the humeral head is diagnosed.
The present study demonstrated some factors affecting the outcomes of treatment for fracture-dislocations of the PH. Current approaches for endoprosthesis replacement in these cases remain debatable and require further investigation.
Trauma; Fracture; Shoulder joint; Fracture-dislocation of the proximal humerus.
Due to contamination, open fractures are considered to be dangerous and thereby require proper management. Through a systematic review and meta-analysis, this study compares the literature on pre-debridement and post-debridement cultures derived from such fracture sites.
Data for this review was collected through various online sources such as dataBASE (EMBASE), medical literature analysis and retrieval system online (MEDLINE) and different citations provided the relevant data.
Twenty articles were included. The desired timing to examine the debridement was six hours post-injury (according to the six-hour rule). Antibiotics including ampicillin, penicillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime, and flucloxacillin were used in some patients. The use of Ancef I as an antibiotic during the starting hours of fracture helps to reduce the chances of infection in 1.4% of the infected patients. The infection rate was 3% in pre-debridement culture, while a 2% infection rate was found in post debridement culture. Gram-negative bacteria were responsible for pre-debridement infection, while gram-positive bacteria were responsible for post-debridement.
The pre-debridement infection rates are reduced as compared to post-debridement when treatment is initiated within a strict time interval and limited to the specific use of antibiotics. Treatment of gram-negative bacteria helps to reduce the bulk of infectious material and thereby reduces the infection rate.
Open fractures; Debridement; Pre-debridement; Post-debridement; Meta- analysis; Systematic review.
A majority of tibial plateau fractures involve the lateral plateau. Posterolateral tibial plateau fractures are caused by a valgus force that impacts the posterolateral plateau against the lateral femoral condyle. We describe a unique case of a patient who sustained a lateral plateau fracture with posterior displacement behind a fractured fibular head, with entrapment of the peroneal nerve. This unusual fracture pattern required dual anterolateral and lateral approach for reduction and fixation.
Tibial plateau; High energy; Fracture; Peroneal nerve entrapment.
In recent years, there has been a paradigm shift in the treatment of early-onset scoliosis. This change is manifested by a propensity to avoiding or delaying fusion surgeries due to their many potential shortcomings. Many surgeons gravitate towards conservative measures and growth-friendly implants such as magnetic expandable growing rods. Still, such interventions are not impeccable. This case report discusses 8-year-old girl with early-onset scoliosis managed with magnetic expandable rods after failing conservative management. The results were promising at first. However, catastrophic failure was diagnosed after multiple successful elongations necessitating discarding the system and changing the construct to conventional growing rods.
Magnet rods; Growing rods; Growth friendly procedures; Catastrophic failure; Early-onset scoliosis; Juvenile scoliosis; Scoliosis complications.
There are different processes via which a muscle cell can utilize oxygen to make energy that will sustain activity. The type of activity and duration of activity will determine what energy system is used to sustain the activity being done. Aerobic metabolism uses oxygen to sustain the energy demand. Oxygen is obtained from the air we breathe, and then transported to the cells though the myoglobin. Although ambient air only contains 21% oxygen, it is enough to sustain life and energy needs. But what if the muscle cell could instead receive 100% oxygen? The delivery method would be via hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) which supplies oxygen at 100% concentration under a minimum of 1 atmospheric pressure. Atmospheric pressure will affect the outcomes of consuming 100% oxygen. Research supports positive findings on oxygen therapy under pressure and muscle cell recovery but much research still needs to be investigated. One research study revealed detrimental effects of 100% oxygen breathed in consistently for days resulting in comorbidities that did not exist prior to experiment. HBO can pose some risks but if it is applied in a controlled manner, HBO can be a safe option to enhance cellular recovery and cell function.
Oxygen; Hyperbaric oxygen therapy; Muscle recovery; Muscle cells; Pure oxygen.
Associate Professor Department of SurgeryDivision of Orthopaedic Surgery American University of Beirut Medical Centre Beirut, Lebanon
Professor Department of Orthopaedic Surgery & RehabilitationUniversity of Texas Medical Branch 301 University BLVD Galveston, Texas 77555-0165, USA
Cheif of Spine Surgery Cheif of Orthopedic Casualties Alrazi Hospital-KuwaitChairman of Faculty Orthopedics & Post Graduate trainingKuwait Institute for Medical Specialization (KIMS) Orthopedic Spine Surgeon – Canadian Board CertifiedP.O. BOX 1160 Surra 45712, Kuwait
Chair ISAFA www.isafa.infoQatar Olympics Committee Professorial Chair in Sport ScienceCollege of Arts and Sciences Qatar University Al Tarfa, Doha 2713 Qatar
Professor National Institute of Medical Sciences Apex Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302017, India