Volume 8, Issue 1

  • 2021, May

    original research

    Association of Fat Mass and Obesity Associated, Dopamine Receptor Type 2 and Ankyrin Repeat and Kinase Domain Containing 1 Genes with Pediatric Obesity and Metabolic Risk: A Case-Control StudyOpen Access

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    Abstract [+]

    Background
    Genetic polymorphisms that affect the availability and secretion of dopamine can affect the risk of obesity.
    Objectives
    To investigate the relationship between pediatric obesity and cardiovascular risk factors (CRF) with the polymorphisms of “Fat Mass and Obesity Associated” (FTO) rs9939609, “Dopamine Receptor type 2” (DRD2) rs6277 and “Ankyrin Repeat and Kinase Domain Containing 1” (ANKK1) rs18000497 genes.
    Methods
    Case-Control study conducted with 226 pediatric patients from 5 to 16-years of age. The two main groups, Obese (O) and Eutrophic (E), were subdivided according to the value of HOMA-IR into obese with insulin resistance (ORI) or insulin sensitivity (OSI) and eutrophic resistant (ERI) or sensitive (ESI) to insulin. According to the presence of two or more CRF, they were subdivided into metabolically unhealthy or metabolically healthy groups: Obese Metabolically Unhealthy (OMU), Obese Metabolically Healthy (OMH), Eutrophic Metabolically Unhealthy (EMU) and Eutrophic Metabolically Healthy (EMH). Polymorphisms were determined by real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) or Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP).
    Results
    In the obese group, the higher the number of risk alleles of FTO and ANKK1 genes isolated and the three genes combined, the higher the mean BMI (p<0.0001). Regarding the FTO gene: the frequency of the risk allele was: 57.7%-ERI, 37.4%-ESI (p=0.048), and the homozygous wild genotype was: 29.5%-OMU, 37.5%-OMH (p=0.02). Regarding the DRD2 gene: the genotypes with the risk allele were present in 84.6%-OMU and 67.5%-OMH (p=0.031). Regarding the ANKK1 gene: the frequency of the homozygous risk genotype was current in 15.4%-ERI and 13.5%-ESI (p<0.0001) and 62.5%-EMU and 41.5%-OMH (p=0.031). Conclusion Risk alleles of FTO, DRD2 and ANKK1 genes had an additive effect on the outcome of pediatric obesity in Brazilian children and conferred a higher risk of insulin resistance (FTO and ANKK1) and CRF. Keywords Childhood obesity; Genetic polymorphism; Insulin resistance; Metabolic syndrome; Dopamine.


  • 2021, September

    original research

    Effects of Garcinia Cambogia Compounded Supplements on the Formation of Body Fat Induced by a High Energy Diet in Obese RatsOpen Access

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    Abstract [+]

    Background
    Obesity is a public health concern in many countries. Obesity is often accompanied by other diseases and, in addition to its effects on personal health, also increases national health expenditure and medical costs. Currently, weight loss can be achieved through several medical means, such as gastric bypass surgery, liposuction, or the use of weight loss drugs. However, these options may lead to side effects or increased mortality. As such, the development of anti-obesity supplements that are natural and safe merits greater research attention. Garcinia cambogia extract, green coffee bean extract, mulberry leaf extract, chromium yeast, and wakame
    extract are known to have the potential to combat obesity and adjust physical constitutions; however, the effect on fat loss of these agents in a compound supplement has not been researched or discussed.
    Objective
    This study investigated the effects of a compound supplement (hereafter referred to as Garcinia cambogia compounded supplements (GC)) containing Garcinia cambogia extract, green coffee bean extract, mulberry leaf extract, chromium yeast, and wakame extract on fat accumulation induced by a high energy (HE) diet in rats.
    Design
    Six-week-old, male Sprague–Dawley rats were assigned to a control group or an experimental (HE) group. The control group comprised 12 rats who were given regular feed. The HE group comprised 36 rats who were given HE diet and were further divided according to whether they received carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) or GC (305 and 1220 mg/kg, denoted as GC-L and GC-H,
    respectively) for 5-weeks. Starting from the sixth-week, the rats were tube-fed various dosages of GC. After the ninth-week, the rats’ body weight, food intake, body fat mass, serum biochemical properties, and liver fat were analyzed.
    Results
    The results demonstrated that the HE+GC-L rats had significantly lower weight and body fat mass (569.5±51.3 g; 36.6±9.6 g) than the HE+CMC rats (618.5±57.1 g; 46.3±12.2 g). Food efficiency and calorie utilization were also significantly lower in the HE+GC-L rats than in the HE+CMC group (p<0.01). Compared with the HE+CMC group, food efficiency, calorie utilization, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and concentration of free fatty acids were also significantly lower in the HE+GC-H rats (p<0.05). Conclusion The GC supplementation significantly reduced body weight, body fat mass, body fat percentage, food efficiency, and calorie utilization in rats, and it thus has potential as a natural and safe plant extract dietary supplement. Its long-term effects on the human body should be investigated in the future. Keywords Obesity; Garcinia cambogia extract; Green coffee bean extract; Mulberry leaf extract; Chromium yeast; Wakame extract.


  • 2021, December

    case study

    A Case Study of Inositol and Soluble Fiber Supplementation on Glycemic Control in an Overweight SubjectOpen Access

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    Abstract [+]

    Background
    Soluble fiber has been shown to improve glycemic control by slowing the absorptions of glucose. And inositol has been shown to improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and gestational diabetes via recruiting glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) to cell surface. However, neither inositol supplementation nor combination of inositol and soluble fiber supplementation has been studied in overweight.
    Objective
    To investigate if supplementation of inositol improves biological markers of glycemic control overweight and obesity, and that supplementation of inositol in combination with soluble fiber have synergistic effects to further improve these markers.
    Design
    A single cohort, uncontrolled, test-retest design was planned to be implemented over 5-weeks in which the participants supplemented 2 grams of myo-inositol twice daily for 4-weeks and then 2 grams of myo-inositol plus 2 grams of soluble fiber each twice daily for 1-week in overweight and obese subjects. Only one overweight subject was able to complete both phases of supplementation due to coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), therefore the study is reported as a case study.
    Results
    Supplementation of 4 grams of myo-inositol daily for 4-weeks resulted in improved glucose parameters and lipid parameters including fasting blood glucose, post-prandial blood glucose, total blood cholesterol level, blood high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level, and blood triglyceride level. The combination of inositol and soluble fiber supplementation further improved
    the total blood cholesterol level.
    Conclusion
    These results indicate there is potential benefit of inositol supplementation for sub-clinical hyperglycemic, overweight subjects on glycemic control.
    Keywords
    Dietary supplementation; Overweight; Glycemic control; Inositol; Soluble fiber; Type 2 diabetes (T2D); COVID-19.