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  • 2019, September

    original research

    Relationships between Sleep, Sedentary Behavior, and Physical Activity in Young AdultsOpen Access

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    Abstract [+]

    Purpose

    While there are some studies on sleep and physical activity, little is known regarding the associations between sleep and sedentary behavior. This study investigated the associations between sleep, sedentary behavior, and physical activity among young adults.

    Methods

    Cross-sectional data from 124 undergraduate students were included in the analysis (age=21±1 years). Both accelerometer-based and self-report assessments of sleep were included; physical activity and sedentary behavior were assessed by accelerometers. Participants were asked to fill out sleep questionnaires and wear accelerometers for 7 days. Pearson correlations, partial correlations, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) analyses were performed to investigate the relationships between sleep, sedentary behavior, and physical activity.

    Results

    After adjusting for age, gender, percent body fat, educational level, and monthly allowance, prolonged sedentary time was correlated with a shorter sleep onset latency (r=-0.19, p=0.04), shorter time in bed (r=-0.43, p<0.001), and shorter sleep duration (r=-0.38, p<0.001). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was positively correlated with sleep onset latency (r=0.43, p<0.001). Sedentary behavior and MVPA were not correlated with sleep quality or daytime sleepiness. After further categorizing sleep duration into three subgroups, individuals with ≤6 hours (p<0.001) of sleep spent more time being sedentary than did those with 6-7 hours (p<0.001) and ≥7 hours (p=0.007) of sleep. Individuals with 6-7 hours of sleep had a higher level of MVPA than did those with ≥7 hours of sleep.

    Conclusion

    Improving the duration of sleep may be a viable approach to help reduce sedentary behavior among young adults. Future studies with longitudinal designs are needed to further investigate the directionality of these associations and their potential mediators and moderators.

    Keywords

    Accelerometer; Sleep; Sedentary; Physical activity.


  • 2019, August

    systematic review

    The Role of Genetics in the Pathophysiology of Obesity: A Systematic ReviewOpen Access

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    Aim

    The obesity epidemic has been largely attributed to changes in lifestyle habits established over the past three decades. These changes are mainly attributed to excessive nutrition and decline in physical activity as well as additional factors such as reduced intestinal microbiota diversity, sleep duration, endocrine disruptors, and reduced variability of the ambient temperature. However, the obesogenic environment is not sufficient to determine the presence of obesity, it is necessary that the lifestyle becomes associated with a personal predisposition for the phenotype to emerge. In this article, we review the main forms of monogenic and syndromic obesity, as well as a historical summary of the search for the genes that add up to confer greater risk for the development of polygenic obesity.

    Methods

    We carried out a PubMed search, along with ExcerptaMedica database (EMBASE)/Cochrane library, Web Sciences for the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms “obesity’’ AND “genetics” for the past 5-years.

    Results

    We found a total of 14057 articles pertaining to obesity and genetics together of which we selected 92 articles for this review after getting articles after searching cross references.

    Conclusion

    Studies with twins and adopted children show that 55 to 80% of the variation of body mass index (BMI) is attributed to genetic factors. According to the genetic criteria, obesity can be classified as A) Monogenic – when a mutated gene is responsible for the phenotype; B) Syndromic – when a set of specific symptoms are present and a small group of genes is involved; usually the term is used to describe obese patients with cognitive delay, dysmorphic features, organ-specific abnormalities, hyperphagia, and/or other signs of hypothalamic dysfunction; C) Polygenic – also called “common” obesity, present in up to 95% of cases. Many genes add up to give a greater risk to the individual, and if associated with some habits culminates in obesity. In spite of its great relevance, the search for the genes that raise the risk of obesity has not been easy. It is still a challenge for the scientific community to separate the genetic element from the environmental component in the etiology of this disease. Individuals more susceptible to excessive adiposity may carry risk variants in the genes that influence appetite control, the regulation of cellular machinery, lipid metabolism and adipogenesis, the energy expenditure, insulin signaling, and inflammation.

    Keywords

    Obesity; Genetics; Polygenic; Monogenic; Syndromic; Polymorphism.


About the Journal

Obesity Research – Open Journal (OROJ) is an online open journal which covers obesity and its controlling measures, epidemiological, translational and clinical studies.

Obesity is one of the world’s most prevalent health problems. Obesity or overweight is the abnormal accumulation of fat in the body, which increases health risks like diabetes, hypertension, heart problems, osteoarthritis, cancer, and many others. Obesity is the result of overeating in most cases, but other factors include genetic makeup, sedentary lifestyle, etc.

However, Openventio aims to widespread all the detailed matters related to dietary through its Open Journal to all the scientific community for its welfare and control.

Aims and Scope

Obesity Research – Open Journal (OROJ) is dedicated to the open dissemination and robust discussion in the area of obesity and its related fields. Obesity Research – Open Journal (OROJ) focuses on all the aspects of Obesity Research.

OROJ covers a wide array of subjects as given below

  • Diet in obesity, diet and obesity
  • Health risks associated with  obesity
  • Rapid weight loss
  • Metabolism enhancers
  • Exercise Therapy
  • Morbid obesity
  • Physical activity

Submissions for this journal are accepted from the very basic obesity studies to the latest advancements.

The contributors of OROJ includes dieticians, surgeons, physicians, plastic surgeons, clinicians, surgical investigators, practitioners, educators, nurse, students, and the general community.

The journal welcomes all types of articles such as original research, review, case-report, mini-review, editorial, short-communication, book-review, opinion, commentary, letter to the editor, conference proceedings, technical report, errata, illustrations, etc.

We are open to receive comments or any corrections from any potential scientists to improve the quality of our journal.