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There is a global increase in occupational exposure to solvents, some of which are suspected to cause acute or chronic toxic nephropathies in humans. However, limited studies have been done to evaluate the systemic effects of exposure to some of the commonly used solvents such as paints.
The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of chronic exposure to paint fumes on renal and hepatic functions of industrial spray painters. Methodology In this cross-sectional study, 49 occupationally exposed male industrial spray painters who had served for greater than 5 years were evaluated for changes in renal, hepatic and hematological indices using standard instruments and results were compared with levels in the unexposed (sex and age-matched) participants.
Significant changes in markers of renal, hepatic and hematological functions were observed in the exposed compared with unexposed participants including significant decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and serum levels of potassium (K+) and chloride (Cl-), and significant increases in serum levels of creatinine (Cr), sodium (Na+), urea (Ur) and uric acid (UA) in the exposed compared to levels in the unexposed group. Abnormal serum levels of hepatic enzymes (AST, ALT and ALP) and hematological indices (PCV, total-RBC, nuetrophils, basophils, monocytes and lymphocytes) were also observed in the exposed compared to levels in the unexposed participants.
Prolonged exposure to paint fumes may be associated with a significant risk for hepato-renal dysfunction and hematotoxicity. Preventive measures should include limiting exposure and using antioxidant medications.
Spray painting; Toxicity; Workers; Kidney; Liver; Blood cells.
Abbreviations ALT: Alanine transaminase; ALP: Alkaline phosphatase; AST: Aspartate transaminase; eGFR: Estimated glomerular fitration rate; C-G: Cockroft-Gault; MDRD: Modification of diet in renal disease; Na+/K+/ATPase: Sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase; PH: Hydrogen Concentration; PCV: Packed cell volume; RBC: Red blood cells; ROS: Reactive oxygen species; UA: Uric acid; Ur: Urea.
Transcriptomics has allowed for a better understanding of disease, and the sequencing of individual genes is becoming a leading approach to discovering novel germ lines. A newly defined cell type, described as transitional cells, was characterized based on their expression of key marker genes that define principle cells (PC) and intercalated cells (IC). Gene expression patterns suggested that a Notch signaling pathway was activated during the transition from IC to PC. An experimental model studying the transition in an inducible transgenic mouse demonstrated that Notch signaling and receptor expression is sufficient to drive cell transition in differentiated adult kidney collecting tubule. The identification of novel cell lines allows for a more accurate diagnosis of kidney disease and precise staging of disease. Molecular profiling and precision therapy will continue to revolutionize the field of medicine and warrants further exploration.
Transcriptomics; Kidney disease; Principle cell; Intercalated cell; Notch signaling; Gene sequencing.
PC: Principle cell; IC: Intercalated cell, DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid; RNA: Ribonucleic acid; mRNA: Messenger ribonucleic acid.
Associate Professor of Medicine
Division of Kidney Diseases and Hypertension
Rhode Island Hospital
Brown University School of Medicine
Middle House Suite 301
593 Eddy Street
Providence, RI 02903, USA
Department of Pediatrics
Adjunct Associate Research Scientist
Instructor Harvard Medical School Boston
Brigham & Womens Hospital
Orthopaedic Research (Retired)
Founder: NOVACULE, LLC
2587 Albany Street, West Hartford
CT 06117, USA
Department of Nephrology- Medicine
University of Tennesse- Health Science Center
19S Manassas Street, CRB362; Memphis
TN 38103, USA
Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine
The School of Life Sciences
No. 229 Taibai North Road
Xian, Shaanxi 710069, China