A 56-year-old lady presented to the hospital with 2-day history of flu like symptoms. These had begun within a few hours after starting Nitrofurantoin for urinary tract infection that was prescribed by her primary care doctor. Blood tests upon admission revealed elevated aminotransferase levels with normal bilirubin levels. The medication was stopped, and other causes of hepatitis were investigated. Nitrofurantoin induced idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) was confirmed by excluding all other causes. Patient’s symptoms and liver enzymes improved the next day and she was discharged. A follow-up on the laboratory’s nine-days later revealed liver enzymes almost back to normal.
Nitrofurantoin; Urinary tract infection; Idiosyncratic drug induced liver injury; Acute reversible hepatotoxicity; Flu-like illness; Elevated transaminases.
The severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) designated as novel coronavirus is a cause of highly infectious disease referred to as coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). The global pandemic that affected millions of people worldwide has claimed many lives and brought about catastrophe in low-income countries. The high mortality and rapid spread of the infection have brought about an urgent need for a safe and effective vaccine to control the pandemic. In this perspective, it becomes essential to understand the structure, mode of transmission, and virulence of SARS-Cov-2. In this article, an emphasis is made on understanding the infection pathogenesis and the host defense mechanisms against the infection to break the chain of transmission. Furthermore, we have tried to summarize the development and characteristics of different types of COVID-19 vaccines. In addition to this, we have highlighted the challenges of the public health system in the procurement and delivery of
the vaccine to the community and especially to the most vulnerable society. It becomes the main priority to find support financially and make the public health system ready to imbibe the importance of vaccination through meticulous strategies so that vaccine reaches out to the community.
SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Vaccine; COVID-19 treatment.