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Monitoring adherence to pre-exposure prophylaxis is a critical component of reaching ending the human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) epidemic goals in the US. Currently, providers still depend on “self-report” pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adherence, whereby providers ask their patients about their recent pill taking habits. There appears to be growing consensus across the HIV prevention community that “self-report” is an inadequate method of identifying that is in-need of additional adherence support services. In a recent survey, 97% of providers report utilizing self-reported adherence because it is convenient, but only 10% of these providers believe it is accurate. While “self-report” is convenient, evidence and testimonials from diverse stakeholders across the HIV prevention landscape indicate that there is a desire for more accurate, effective adherence monitoring methods. In this mini-review, we will briefly synthesize the emerging evidence and propose a solution to ensure all patients receive the support needed to protect them from HIV acquisition.
Pre-exposure prophylaxis; HIV; Adherence; Prevention; Self-report.
To date, only few United States (US) states have explicit regulations that allow minors to independently give consent for human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) prevention treatments. This manuscript will reflect upon key advocacy efforts leading to the revision of the Maryland Minor Consent Law, evaluate current human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) prevention laws for minors in U.S. states, and highlight resources for health advocacy.
Between 2018-2019, public health professionals in Baltimore, Maryland reviewed the Maryland Minor Consent Law and other adolescent consent laws within the U.S. The professionals advocated for a legal review of the gap by the State Senate and the Office of Attorney General.
In May 2019, the public health advocates were successful in their effort for a revision of the Maryland Minor Consent Law to include Treatment for the Prevention of HIV-Consent by minors. Upon their review of all adolescent consent laws within the U.S., they found that only eleven states currently have explicit language indicative of an adolescent’s ability to give consent for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).
This inquiry can change upstream factors such as laws, regulations, policies and institutional practices.
HIV, Prevention, Pre-exposure prophylaxis, Adolescents, Minor consent law.
Despite previous findings attesting to the syndemic nature of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), chronic disease and mental illness coordination of these issues remains a significant barrier to initiating and maintaining the delivery of mental and physical health care to persons living with HIV (PLWH). These inequities are even greater when applied to rural settings, particularly in areas that are medically underserved. To date, there is scarce research regarding the lived experiences of African American PLWH
in rural settings. Constructivist grounded theory was used to analyze this qualitative data set. These discourses provide a rich narrative regarding effective systems of care, the context in which these processes take place and related constraints or limitations of the current systems.
In-depth interviews with 24 African American PLWH both inside (N=20) and outside (N=4) of care in rural Northwestern Virginia were conducted. Rural African American PLWH were queried about their perceptions of the provision of HIV health care services, barriers to linkages to care, retention of PLWH in care, and recommendations for improving HIV health care services for rural PLWH.
Participants offered insights on the linkages to health and mental health care consistent with the pattern recommended by the cascade of care (i.e. pre-screening, testing, refer to treatment, treatment and sustain treatment). Participants identified contextual factors, including traumatic events, medication (side effects), other chronic health issues, issues with the current health and mental health system, stigma, and lack of social support. We highlight PLWH’s recommendations for linking rural PLWH into care and sustaining that care.
We discuss the implications of these findings for programmatic development in the rural context.
Rural African Americans living with HIV; Barriers to HIV health care; Rural South; HIV lived experience.
To assess reasons for patients being lost-to-care (LTC) at an urban health center (Philadelphia, PA, USA) that provides access to oral tenofovir/emtricitabine(TDF/FTC) as pre- exposure prophylaxis(PrEP) to patients ages 13-30 years through a drop-in model of care.
Ninety-nine patients were identified as LTC based on not visiting a clinician in ≥4 months during the period April 2016-January 2017. Patients were contacted by phone/email to participate in a voluntary telephone survey regarding reasons for falling out of care. Results were analyzed descriptively.
Of the 99 patients preliminarily identified as LTC, 19 completed the survey. Reason(s) for becoming LTC included: 47%(9) relocation, 11%(2) transportation difficulties to/from clinic, 26%(5) financial/insurance problems, 5%(1) perceived medication side effects, 16%(3) trouble remembering to attend appointments regularly, 5%(1) difficulty with daily medication adherence, and 0% social stigma. Furthermore, 21%(4) remain at high-risk of HIV/STI acquisition after becoming LTC. The main study limitations are selection bias and small sample size, where the small sample size did not allow for statistical significance.
While the major cause for becoming LTC was relocation, these findings suggest 37% of LTC incidences may be preventable with additional/up-front support. Because 21% of LTC patients remain at high-risk of HIV/STI acquisition, proactive re-engagement initiatives are potentially useful.
HIV/AIDS; Pre-exposure prophylaxis; Retention and care; Socioeconomic factors; Adolescent Health; Lesbian/Gay/Bisexual/Transgender Persons.
Investigator, Obstetrician and Gynecologist
Co-Principal Investigator for Microbicides Trials Network studies
Makerere University-Johns Hopkins University Research Collaboration-MUJHU-CARE LTD
School of Interdisciplinary Health Programs
College of Health & Human Services
Western Michigan University
1903 West Michigan Avenue
Kalamazoo, MI 49008, USA
Executive Vice Dean and Chief Scientific Officer
Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
Perelman School of Medicine
University of Pennsylvania