Volume 5, Issue 1

  • 2020, February

    review

    Better Together: Evolving Social Process between Bystanders and First Responders is a Force Multiplier for Effective Emergency ResponseOpen Access

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    Abstract [+]

    Bystanders are an integral part of an emergency scene. Their presence on site makes them the immediate potential responders, who can provide life-saving assistance as well as various rescue actions. Research has shown that bystanders are willing to and are capable of helping, especially (but not limited to) when a leader emerges, as the help is rooted in a collective action. In this article, we suggest a new framework for understanding the effectiveness of bystanders help, based on the evolving social process between bystanders and first responders. As we show, the transition from no help, at the very first moment right after the emergency has occurred, to an effective coordinated response where first responders and bystanders act together, goes through engagement of bystanders. Further, first responders should acknowledge the social organization of bystanders, utilize and leverage it in order to optimize their efforts. This framework has important insights for policy makers when managing emergency and disaster situations with limited resources.

    Keywords

    Bystanders; First responders; Mass casualty incident; Help; Emergency; Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR).


  • 2020, July

    review

    The Potential of Amniotic Fluid-Derived Extracellular Vesicles to Treat Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection Versus Hydroxychloroquine in Human PatientsOpen Access

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    Abstract [+]

    Recently a lot of attention has been focused on fast-tracking repurposed drugs for the treatment of a novel coronavirus; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent leading to the devastating coronavirus disease-2019 (Covid-19). One of the first and most well-known examples is hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), which has been used for years as a treatment for malaria, rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. HCQ was rolled out as a miracle treatment for Covid-19, which was inexpensive, effective and causing few side-effects. However, its effectiveness in treating Covid-19 has recently been questioned leaving doctors and patients confused and desperate. Here the proposed mechanisms of action of HCQ are discussed and compared with an inexpensive, safe and effective alternative, which is derived from natural, healthy amniotic fluid.
    Keywords
    Covid-19; SARS-CoV-2; Amniotic fluid; CytoSomes.


  • 2020, October

    mini review

    Halting Coronavirus ReplicationOpen Access

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    Abstract [+]

    Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) inhibitors can reduce replication of many viruses with certain characteristics similar to those of coronaviruses, while the p53 protein is another important factor in the down-regulation of viral growth. Tenovin is a class of small molecules that inhibit Sirtuin 1 and 2, in addition to activating the p53 protein, by means of regulating the interactions used by coronaviruses as a self-defense mechanism. By blocking virus growth and continuous replication, with already tested antiviral medicines, the promise of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) eradication exists.
    Keywords
    COVID-19; Coronavirus replication; SIRT1 inhibitors; p53; Tenovin.