Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with altered white blood cell (WBC) and glycated hemoglobin dysfunction.
In this study, we were aimed to compare the status of hemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin and WBC level between diabetic and nondiabetic patient’s group.
This study was conducted in the medicine department of Women’s Medical College and Hospital, Sylhet, Bangladesh. The number of participants was 142. All the patients enrolled were informed verbally about the study and written consent was taken from each patient. Ethical permission was obtained from the institute. All of the tests were performed according to the procedure adopted in the hospital for routine uses. Among the participants, 71 (male 47, female 24) were diagnosed as type-2 diabetics (T2DM) and the other was non-diabetes (male 32 and female 39).
During this study, diabetic patients showed increased hemoglobin (Hb) and WBC level in diabetic blood than non-diabetic one. It has been supported by the study that, HbA1c is remarkably greater than that of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) patients. So, our assumptions could be concluded as; diabetes mellitus is an inflammatory condition itself, which may play role in increased HbA1c and WBC count.
Therefore, elevated WBC count is independently associated with worsening of glucose metabolism and HbA1c may ameliorate the chronic low-grade inflammation such as type-2 diabetics (T2DM).
Diabetes; Blood parameters; White blood cell (WBC); Glycated hemoglobin; Hemoglobin.
Current reports for oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) are described. As to the association of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) and bullous pemphigoid (BP), odds ratio (OR) was vildagliptin 5.08, linagliptin 2.87, sitagliptin 1.29 (not significant). Regarding the comparative study between SGLT2i and DPP-4i, SGLT2i group showed lower hazard ratio (HR) as MACE 0.76, myocardial infarction 0.82, cardiovascular death 0.60, heart failure 0.43, all-cause mortality 0.60. Semaglutide showed reduced OR for cardiovascular death than exenatide 0.47, dulaglutide 0.46, albiglutide 0.45, lixisenatide 0.43. SGLT2i showed reduction risk of HR for MACE 0.90, hospitalization for heart failure (HHF)/cardiovascular death 0.78, renal outcomes 0.62.
Oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs); Sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT-2i); Semaglutide; Bullous pemphigoid (BP); Hospitalization for heart failure (HHF); Major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE).
Diabetes mellitus (DM) has wider neurological complications. They include upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, impaired motility, impaired gastric emptying (GE) and diabetic gastroparesis (DG), which are usually found. The patient was a 64-year-old man with type 2 diabetes (T2D) for 22-years. The patient weighed 74 kg with body mass index (BMI) 23.6 kg/m2, hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) 9.2%, ankle brachial index (ABI) 1.19/1.23, AST 25 U/L(7-38), ALT 23 U/L(4-44), GGT 48 U/L(<86), Chest X-P normal, and electrocardiogram (ECG) negative. When the patient was treated with low carbohydrate diet (LCD), a significant reduction in body
weight and HbA1c was observed. Abdominal computerized tomography (CT) revealed multiple gall stone, dilated common bile duct and impaired GE, indicating DG. For endoscopic examination, much food residue was found in the stomach due to DG after 13 hours fasting. Treatment for DG was initiated by mosapride citrate hydrate. During clinical progress, occasional liver dysfunction was observed twice associated with elevation of AST 196 U/L, GGT 373 U/L and without symptoms, indicating cholestasis-type dysfunction. Some possible triggers may be involved in these episodes, such as gall stone, enlarged volume of stomach due to DG,
overeating, overdrinking, and other factors. This impressive report will hopefully become a reference for developing diabetic practice and research.
Type 2 diabetes (T2D); Diabetic gastroparesis (DG); Gastric emptying (GE); Functional dyspepsia (FD); Low carbohydrate diet (LCD).
brief research report
This cross-sectional study aims to evaluate the association between advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) accumulation, assessed by skin autofluorescence (SAF) measured using the AGE Reader, and the prevalence of several metabolic variables in a diabetic population.
The measurement of SAF has become a non-invasive method of assessing the accumulation of AGEs as a marker of the long-term impact of glycemic and oxidative stress in humans. In contrast to blood glucose and to hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), which reflect a short period of glucose levels, the AGE is a marker of the metabolic legacy effect and reflect a long period of glucose levels. AGEs play a pivotal role in the development and progression of diabetic complications. SAF has been validated as a simple, non-invasive method for assessment of AGEs accumulation in the body.
In this study 100 diabetic patients were participated. We non-invasively measured SAF, in all the participants using the AGE Reader (DiagnOptics Technologies BV, Groningen, The Netherlands). We also measured the body mass index (BMI), the blood pressure and the patients underwent arterial duplex sonogram (Doppler examination) in the legs at the level of the ankle and calculated the ankle-branchial index (ABI), which is an important index for diagnosing peripheral artery disease, which is a severe complication of diabetes. The SAF was positive correlated with age, duration of diabetes and systolic blood pressure (BP) and was negative correlated with ABI.
The measurement of SAF has become a non-invasive and reliable method of assessing the accumulation of AGEs in humans. In contrast to blood glucose and to HbA1c, which reflect a short period of glucose levels, the AGEs reflect a long period of glucose levels, correlate with certain metabolic parameters and with peripheral artery disease.
Diabetes mellitus (DM); Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs); Skin autofluorescence (SAF); Empirical findings.
Frail populations burdened with chronic diseases can get more severe forms of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and have a higher mortality rate.
To test the efficacy of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) containment protocol in patients with endstage renal disease (ESRD) diabetes mellitus (DM) requiring dialysis, who are a typical example of the above category.
The protocol included: (i) daily telephone COVID-19 related triage for patients and their general practitioners (GPs); (ii) social distancing; (iii) environment sanitization, including ambulances, transfer vans, medical equipment, patient/health personnel clothing, and individual protection devices; (iv) adoption of quota systems for patients allowed to the dialysis room, and increased time lags among dialysis shifts. Eight hundred twenty-five (825) patients on dialysis (315 with and 510 without DM), and 381 healthcare providers (HCPs) were monitored continuously from the start of the pandemic until the end of the lockdown.
No HCPs were infected, while only two patients on dialysis were positive for SARS-CoV-2: one with DM, who died in intensive care, and one without DM, who recovered at home. The adopted contagion containment protocol proved to be effective for both HCPs and patients.
Therefore, we propose it as a useful model for any internal medicine or ESRD specialized units dealing with patients on dialysisoriented with or without DM.
COVID-19, Dialysis, Diabetes, Prevention, Contagion.
After the official coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)) pandemic declaration by the World Health Organization (WHO), Italy had the second-largest number of confirmed cases, after China. The Italian government introduced progressive infection-mitigation measurements, thus dramatically reducing social interactions and preventing virus spread. During the summer, infection containment measures progressively loosened until, due to an unjustified interpretation of some permissions and the excessive utilization of public transportation at school reopening, the contagion rate progressively increased until causing a severe challenge for our National Health Service (NHS) again.
To assess the efficiency of our previously described protocol in 18 Campania region-located Nefrocenter Consortium dialysis centers (DCs) as further adapted to new knowledge under the new ubiquitous contagion conditions and to identify SARS-CoV-2-infection mortality rate and risk factors.
381 HCP members underwent regular monitoring on April 1 and November 13, 2020. Dialysis patients did so too during that period according to the expected shifting prevalence over time (mean±SD:853±30 per month; range 825 to 873) vs (11.8% in April, and 14.8% in November vs. a pre-coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) 12.0% rate in January).
More patients got infected in November (10.19%) than in April (0,24%), and 22 patients of the 89 from the SARS-CoV-2 November positive subjects required hospitalization for moderate-severe symptoms (24.72%), with death unavoidably coming in 19 (86.36% of hospitalized and 21.35% of infected patients) compared to the only one recorded in April (0.12%). The pandemic’s two periods
showed a strong association between mortality rate and often co-existing comorbidities, primarily represented by arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and chronic kidney disease (CKD).
The previously efficient contagion containment measures adopted by our DCs were not enough in November to fight the global infection risk pending on the whole Italian social community around. The author, discuss possible reasons and put forward further suggestions for the best handling of any future infection waves.
COVID-19; Dialysis; Diabetes; Prevention; Contagion; COVID second round.
The case was 52-year-old female with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for 10-years. She complained of the decreased sensation of right lower foot, and revealed diabetic foot infection (DFI) and/or diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO) at right 1st proximal phalanx. Various data included body mass index (BMI) 33.3 kg/m2, HbA1c 11.4%, blood glucose 430 mg/dL, WBC 12100 /μL, C-reactive Protein (CRP) 13.5 mg/dL. On admission (day 1), she was started by 4 times of injection (Aspart and Glargin) with glucose profile 200-500 mg/dL. Surgical amputation of the right toe was performed between 1st metatarsal and proximal phalanx (day 17). Then, blood glucose profile decreased moderately. After discharge of the hospital, super-Low Carbohydrate Diet (LCD) was started without Aspart (day 37). Consequently, glucose profile was normalized with HbA1c 6.3% on (day 77). Consequently, LCD was evaluated to be effective for glucose variability in this case and some related discussion was described.
Diabetic foot infection (DFI); Diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO); Low Carbohydrate Diet (LCD); Japanese LCD promotion association (JLCDPA); International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF).
DFI: Diabetic foot infection; DFO: Diabetic foot osteomyelitis; LCD: Low carbohydrate diet; JLCDPA: Japanese LCD promotion association; IWGDF: International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot.
Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in an amputated stump is potentially life-threatening but rarely diagnosed and there are limited data in sub-Saharan Africa. This is aimed at demonstrating an additional vascular risk in patients with lower limb amputation and diabetes. A 74-year-old man who had a right above knee amputation done on account of grade 5 right diabetic foot with post-operative prophylactic anticoagulation. Doppler ultrasound done before the surgery showed bilateral multiple lower limb arteries atherosclerosis but no evidence of deep venous thrombosis. He was discharged home on Zimmer frame. Three months after, he was noticed to have differential swelling of the right amputation stump. Thigh circumference measured at 15 cm below the anterior superior iliac spine was 55 cm and 50 cm on the right and left respectively there was but no differential warmth or tenderness. The vital signs were relatively stable. Doppler ultrasound scan of the lower limbs showed an echogenic thrombus in the right deep femoral vein. He was commenced on therapeutic dose of subcutaneous enoxaparin. DVT in an amputated stump is uncommonly encountered. It may not have classical clinical findings. Poor mobility and pooling of venous blood in the amputated stump are some of the risk factors that have been reported. DVT in an amputated stump in a patient with diabetes is rare and may not present classically. It may be one of the potential reasons for the increased mortality after lower limb amputation.
Deep venous thrombosis (DVT); Amputated stump; Diabetes patient.
Menopause is a critical time in a woman’s life which heralds the cessation of reproductive competence. There is body fat redistribution which increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There is a complex interrelationship between menopause and T2DM; several variables like the timing of the menopause, the type of menopause and the symptomatology impact this relationship. The treatment of vasomotor symptoms with hormone replacement therapy may also impact glycemia both in women with and without pre-existing T2DM. We tried to examine this relationship based on current scientific evidence. We also suggested strategies
to reduce the burden of T2DM in menopausal women.
Menopause; T2DM; Hormone replacement therapy.
President Life Science Promotion Foundation 25-3-1004, Daikyo-cho, Shinjuku-ku Tokyo 160-0005, Japan
Chief Executive Officer Chief Scientific Officer Prometheon Pharma, LLCSid Martin Biotechnology Incubator University of Florida 10285 Research Drive Alachua, FL 32615, USA
Associate Professor Department of Endocrinology Diabetes Mellitus School of Medicine Fukuoka University 7-45-1 Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka 814-0180 Japan