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Mechanisms by which some plants with antihyperglycemic effects reduce postprandial hyperglycemiaare not fully elucidated. This study was designed to investigate some action mechanisms of extracts from stem bark of Citrus sinensis, seeds of Persea americana and bulbs of Allium sativum including in vitro inhibition of α-amylase and invertase; glucophagic capacity, absorption capacity on yeast cells and psoas tissues.
Recently, elder patients tend to have neuropathic pain such as lower back and joints pain, stiff shoulders, besides diabetic neuropathy. Typical peripheral neuropathic pain includes diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain (DPNP), postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) and chronic pain due to herniated disc. Three analgesic agents are described. Pregabalin (Lyrica®) has been prevalent worldwide. However, it has been provided for several diseases for off-label administration, which has been one of the clinical problems.Mirogabalin (Tarlige®) has revealed efficacy for DPNP in a dose-dependent manner. Duloxetine hydrochloride (Cymbalta®) has efficacy for pain and also depression as serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI).
Neuropathic pain; Pregabalin; Mirogabalin; Duloxetine hydrochloride; Diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain (DPNP).
DPNP: Diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain; PHN: Postherpetic neuralgia; CRPS: Complex regional pain syndrome; FDA: Food and Drug Administration.
The case was 52-year-old female with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for 10-years. She complained of the decreased sensation of right lower foot, and revealed diabetic foot infection (DFI) and/or diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO) at right 1st proximal phalanx. Various data included body mass index (BMI) 33.3 kg/m2, HbA1c 11.4%, blood glucose 430 mg/dL, WBC 12100 /μL, C-reactive Protein (CRP) 13.5 mg/dL. On admission (day 1), she was started by 4 times of injection (Aspart and Glargin) with glucose profile 200-500 mg/dL. Surgical amputation of the right toe was performed between 1st metatarsal and proximal phalanx (day 17). Then, blood glucose profile decreased moderately. After discharge of the hospital, super-Low Carbohydrate Diet (LCD) was started without Aspart (day 37). Consequently, glucose profile was normalized with HbA1c 6.3% on (day 77). Consequently, LCD was evaluated to be effective for glucose variability in this case and some related discussion was described.
Diabetic foot infection (DFI); Diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO); Low Carbohydrate Diet (LCD); Japanese LCD promotion association (JLCDPA); International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF).
DFI: Diabetic foot infection; DFO: Diabetic foot osteomyelitis; LCD: Low carbohydrate diet; JLCDPA: Japanese LCD promotion association; IWGDF: International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot.
Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in an amputated stump is potentially life-threatening but rarely diagnosed and there are limited data in sub-Saharan Africa. This is aimed at demonstrating an additional vascular risk in patients with lower limb amputation and diabetes. A 74-year-old man who had a right above knee amputation done on account of grade 5 right diabetic foot with post-operative prophylactic anticoagulation. Doppler ultrasound done before the surgery showed bilateral multiple lower limb arteries atherosclerosis but no evidence of deep venous thrombosis. He was discharged home on Zimmer frame. Three months after, he was noticed to have differential swelling of the right amputation stump. Thigh circumference measured at 15 cm below the anterior superior iliac spine was 55 cm and 50 cm on the right and left respectively there was but no differential warmth or tenderness. The vital signs were relatively stable. Doppler ultrasound scan of the lower limbs showed an echogenic thrombus in the right deep femoral vein. He was commenced on therapeutic dose of subcutaneous enoxaparin. DVT in an amputated stump is uncommonly encountered. It may not have classical clinical findings. Poor mobility and pooling of venous blood in the amputated stump are some of the risk factors that have been reported. DVT in an amputated stump in a patient with diabetes is rare and may not present classically. It may be one of the potential reasons for the increased mortality after lower limb amputation.
Deep venous thrombosis (DVT); Amputated stump; Diabetes patient.
Menopause is a critical time in a woman’s life which heralds the cessation of reproductive competence. There is body fat redistribution which increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There is a complex interrelationship between menopause and T2DM; several variables like the timing of the menopause, the type of menopause and the symptomatology impact this relationship. The treatment of vasomotor symptoms with hormone replacement therapy may also impact glycemia both in women with and without pre-existing T2DM. We tried to examine this relationship based on current scientific evidence. We also suggested strategies
to reduce the burden of T2DM in menopausal women.
Menopause; T2DM; Hormone replacement therapy.
systematic review based hypothesis
Life Science Promotion Foundation
25-3-1004, Daikyo-cho, Shinjuku-ku
Tokyo 160-0005, Japan
Chief Executive Officer
Chief Scientific Officer
Prometheon Pharma, LLC
Sid Martin Biotechnology Incubator
University of Florida
10285 Research Drive
Alachua, FL 32615, USA
Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes Mellitus
School of Medicine
7-45-1 Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka 814-0180, Japan