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Multi-level group selection theory is a presently rejuvenated framework for explaining the empathic tendencies of group culture and behavior as means of beneficial natural selection utility.
The purpose here is to simply articulate the ways in which the anthropological theory of multi-level group selection overlaps with the latest psychological research on child conceptualization of equity and empathy so that a focused line of thought can be followed in subsequent research on how childhood psychology interacts with classroom environs moving forward.
The impact these studies stand to have on the broader culture of education would be largely equitable, ensuring that all students from all demographics would be encouraged by like-minded teachers to further propagate their applied learning for mutual advantage and benefit while also exciting each other about what they learn by finding shared relevant experiences and desires to make relevant connections to..
Multi-Level; Group selection; Kin selection; Empathy; Pedagogy; Pedagogical practice; Evolution; Natural selection; Classrooms; Education.
In most African countries, the elderly face challenges that affect their health and wellbeing and are more pronounced because of the systemic factors of inadequate health care, food insecurity and the general care. Increasing population of the elderly persons in Uganda is raising concern than ever before. The purpose of this paper to ascertain care available to the rural elderly persons and their role as carers for their grandchildren and implications on their wellbeing.
This was a qualitative study conducted among the rural elderly aged 60 years and above in eight purposively selected district that included Lira, Nebbi, Kampala, Luwero, Pallisa, Jinja, Mbarara, and Ntungamo. The study sample consisted of 101 elderly person from whom in-depth interviews were conducted. Data was analysed using qualitative thematic content analysis.
Rural elderly in Uganda face a lot of constraints that include access to healthcare and information, poor economic status, food insecurity and poor nutrition, and poor accommodation and housing conditions. Two broader themes emerged inductively from the analysis that include care available for the rural elderly and providing care to grandchildren. These themes generated several subthemes. Taking care of grandchildren crippled the elderly and reduced the economic benefits. That said some rural elderly were happy and felt fulfilled to care of the grandchildren despite the lack of resources.
The rural elderly in Uganda are living in doleful conditions with limited care and support. They need care but are the providers of care to the grandchildren. They are frails and may not afford to provide adequate care. They care for grandchildren many of whom are orphans and vulnerable yet they themselves need care. It is important the government and the community re-enforce this care not to put strain on elderly. The rural elderly unique challenges necessitates special targeting and mobilization of resources at the household, local, district and national levels.
Grandparents; Care; Orphans; Grandchildren; Skip-generation; Uganda.
This essay has emerged through my research engagements with life history as a research method in anthropology. It is based on the life events of a woman artist. The past few decades have brought an explosion of cultural criticisms and also explorations of women’s creative expressions across cultures. Some of the queries addressed are, how do external forces shape the creativity of female artists. Also, how do creative women respond to such forces? Creative women, then, have a unique relationship to their cultural contexts, as well as to the creative genre to which they respond. This essay also delves into myths related to insanity and women. It discusses creativity, as a mode of engagement with rigid social structures.
Life history; Women; Creativity; Body psyche; Insanity; Myths; Anthropology.
Sitting height (SH), sub ischial leg length (SILL) and the sitting height/leg length ratio (SH/SILL) are useful tools for assessing human body proportions. They are often used to detect the presence of abnormal growth, especially in school-aged children.
Materials and Methods
Our cross-sectional study was conducted among 1012 preschool children aged 2 to 6-years from Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) scheme centers at Bali Gram Panchayat, Arambagh, Hooghly District, West Bengal, India. Anthropometric measurements like height, weight, SH were measured following standard protocol.
There was no age combined significant sex difference in any variable. However, age specific sex differences were there in few age groups. Highly significant (p<0.001) age variations existed in all variables. The body mass index (BMI) was significantly (p<0.01) negatively correlated with SILL (r=-0.443), SILLP (r=-0.302) and UTL (r=-0.346) in both sexes. It was significantly (p<0.01) positively associated with UTLP (r=0.302). Moreover, SILL was significantly positively correlated with UTL in both sexes (boys, r=0.821 and girls, r=0.871; p<0.01), whereas it was significantly negatively associated with UTLP (boys, r=-0.590 and girls, r=-0.552; p<0.01) in the participants.
Our results suggest that, in both sexes, there were significant age differences in SILL, SILLP, upper trunk length (UTL) and unified technology learning platform (UTLP). The BMI had significant associations with these variables in both sexes. Moreover, SILL had significant correlation with UTL and UTLP among the participants.
Sub ischial leg length; BMI; Upper trunk length; Sub ischial leg length percentage; Upper trunk length percentage.
brief research report
To describe age-sex differences in the duration from symptom onset to fatality as an outcome in coronavirus desease 2019 (COVID-19) patients.
The Mexican surveillance system database (up to 15th August 2020) of 70,515 death cases (45,053 males, 25,462 females) in COVID-19 was used for analysis. Age groups for pediatric patients were <1, 1-4, 5-9-years and for the adolescent and adult patients, each decade of life constituted an age group.
Proportionally more deaths occurred among male patients (64%). Median duration was eight days from onset of symptoms until death; mean value was approximately 10-days. Distribution by age groups showed females survived lower number of average days after the onset of symptoms. A tendency of rise in the number of days survived has been observed from infancy to adulthood and a subsequent decline after 70-years of age.
Female patients survived relatively lower number of days with infection until death, compared to males.
COVID-19; Infection; Sex difference; Survival; Death.
Associate Professor Department of Anthropology University of Kansas 1415 Jayhawk Blvd., 639 Fraser Hall Lawrence KS 66045-7540, USA
Teaching Assistant Professor Department of Anthropology East Carolina University Greenville, NC 27858, USA
Professor Department of Anthropology University of Mysore Manasagangotri Mysore-570006, Karnataka, India
Department of AnthropologyVidyasagar University Midnapore – 721 102 West Bengal, India