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This paper examines and document the culture-historic and symbolic perspectives of Kwamteng in Demshin, Shendam Local Government Area Plateau State Nigeria. This paper has shown the communal values, norms and the symbolic perspectives of the infamous cult in Shendam. The research argues that in pre-colonial times, Kwamteng was a tool used in measuring moral and worthwhile characters in Demshin. It is shown here that the cult and the deity they worshipped ensured trust, loyalty and fulfilment of agreements between parties. Kwamteng also checked social vices including witchcraft, killing and stealing of peoples property or economic crops. This study shows the significant roles played by this cult within Demshin community, including assisting them out of tough challenges like conflicts (war), financial crises, infertility, sickness and low agricultural produce. The initiation process, initiation items and requirements, mode of worship, items of worship, taboos and other socio-cultural practices tied to this revered cult has been discussed in this work. Also, this work sheds light on its contributions to the socio-political landscape of Demshin.
The study also employed the use of archival materials or written documents, oral tradition through oral interviews and ethnography through participant observation, this research has revealed new information on Kwamteng from a culture-historical perspective.
Kwamteng has an organized religious system, Sustainable conflict management strategy, cultural heritage management, Kwamteng serves as the security and custodian of Goemai cultural history as well as judicial roles.
The research has shown that Kwamteng is an ancient tradition in the Goemai area and it played a very significant role in the upbringing of the male child through rigorous training as well as endurance of hardship from a very tender age to prepare the boy from the task that associates the man later in life.
Shendam; Kwamteng deity; Goemai.
New methods for assessing age of non-adult remains are frequently sought to improve the ability to correctly identify individuals in for forensic and archaeological purposes. Especially when faced with comingled remains, it is helpful to have a bone appropriate tool for age estimation. Research was carried out to assess the usefulness of the occipital condyles for aging non-adult individuals using metric and morphology analyses. The research population included occipital condyles, both fused and unfused, of individuals of known age at death non-adult from the from the Hamann-Todd Collection, Museum of Natural History, Cleveland, Ohio, USA (N=69); Colecção Esqueletos Identificados, Natural History Museum, University of Coimbra, Portugal (N=113); Museu Bocage, National Museum of Natural History, Lisbon, Portugal (N=60). Length and width measurements were taken then regression was used to analyse the datasets. Three morphological factors were observed including, level of fusion at the synchondrosis intraoccipitalis anterior, presence/absence of billows and presence/absence of depressions.
Accuracy based on the metric model ranged between 37-71%. The morphological model showed fusion present as early as 3-years of age, with all non-adults over 8-years showing 100% complete fusion. Only individuals below 13-years of age displayed billows or depressions present; presence not absence of the morphological variables can be used to estimate age with a 92% accuracy rate.
The metric model does not reach an acceptable level of accuracy for use in aging non-adults. Morphology of the occipital condyles do not follow a specific age progression but can be used as a quick age assessment guide; if these morphological features are present the individual very likely between 3-13-years of age.
Age; Non-adult; Occipital condyle; Osteology; Skeletal; Juvenile; Aging; Forensic.
The current global pandemic of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) disease and similar kinds of recent diseases like the Ebola virus and Zika virus diseases urge to renovate the recognition of the need to understand social-cultural pathways of disease transmission. The community members’ emic understanding of sudden health crises may help to increase local people’s participation in the public healthcare system. Social scientists, particularly anthropologists, have an essential driver in population response to the disease outbreak due to their subjective and objective abilities to assess these events through the lens of the bio-cultural dimension, even in micro-level communities. In the light of interdisciplinary understanding of diseases in public health emergencies, the importance of the anthropological role is growing demand and advocate to perform fruitful research. This paper provides a brief outline of the basic concept of public health emergencies and the involvement of Indian anthropologists so far through global perspectives. This paper also argues the current methodological challenges, policy shortcomings, and future opportunities for anthropological research during disease emergencies in the Indian context.
The objective was to find out the community preparedness and response to COVID-19.
For the present study, both secondary and primary data were used. To obtain the secondary data, a specific literature review was done using the key word “Public Health Emergencies”, combined with “Public Health”, “COVID-19”, “Anthropology”, “Preparedness”, “Response”, “Medical Anthropology”, “World Health Organization (WHO)”, “Pandemic”, “Infectious Diseases” and “India” on PubMed and Google Scholar from April 2020 to September 2021. A manual search for relevant materials, and examined articles from several nonacademic sources (e.g. news, websites, etc.) was also used for the analyzing the facts. To obtain primary data, the qualitative survey was carried out in a Santal village, “Majhi Kadamdih”, located in Balarampur block, 35 km southwest of Purulia district town of West Bengal, India.
There is an insightful connection between anthropological research and public health emergency, specifically in local people’s preparedness and response during sudden health crises. Based on world literature, it was observed that anthropologists substantially contribute to finding out the social-cultural pathways of emergency diseases and interprets the phenomenon in bio-cultural ways.
Anthropology; Research; Public health emergencies; India; Case study; WHO.
Multi-level group selection theory is a presently rejuvenated framework for explaining the empathic tendencies of group culture and behavior as means of beneficial natural selection utility.
The purpose here is to simply articulate the ways in which the anthropological theory of multi-level group selection overlaps with the latest psychological research on child conceptualization of equity and empathy so that a focused line of thought can be followed in subsequent research on how childhood psychology interacts with classroom environs moving forward.
The impact these studies stand to have on the broader culture of education would be largely equitable, ensuring that all students from all demographics would be encouraged by like-minded teachers to further propagate their applied learning for mutual advantage and benefit while also exciting each other about what they learn by finding shared relevant experiences and desires to make relevant connections too.
Multi-Level; Group selection; Kin selection; Empathy; Pedagogy; Pedagogical practice; Evolution; Natural selection; Classrooms; Education.
It was known that menarche plays a significant role to change body composition during adolescence. And there is a paucity of information on body composition in relation to pre- and post-menarcheal status on comparative manner among the tribal adolescence girls of West Bengal, India.
To assess the body composition and compare the relative distribution of fat between the pre- and post-menarcheal girls and to explore the impact of body composition on menarcheal status among the Sabar tribal adolescence girls of the Purulia district, West Bengal, India.
The present cross-sectional study was conducted from three different blocks of Purulia district during June 2019 to December 2019. A total of 65 adolescence girls were randomly selected from the aged between 10 to 18-years. Among them, 34 girls were post-menarche stage and 31 girls were pre-menarche stage. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight, triceps and sub-scapular skinfolds) were measured. Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient and Mann-Whitney U-test, Binary logistic regression were performed through SPSS version 25.
It was depicted that significant differences were found in all anthropometric and body composition characteristics between the pre and post menarche state. The mean values of percent body fat (PBF), fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM), fat mass index (FMI) and fat free mass index (FFMI) in pre-menarche girls were 14.61%, 4.45 kg, 24.35 kg, 2.33 kg/m2 and 13.08 kg/m2, respectively. Similarly, the mean values of PBF, FM, FFM, FMI and FFMI in post-menarche girls were 20.37%, 8.07 kg, 31.00 kg, 3.70 kg/m2 and 14.29 kg/m2, respectively. The results of Spearman correlation coefficients (r) showed that the body composition measures were significantly correlated with the anthropometric variables except FFM and FFMI among the post-menarche girls. Menarcheal status of the Sabar tribal adolescent girls of Purulia district was pretentious of PBF and FFM.
The body composition characteristics were significantly different between pre- and post-menarche-state. So, further study in larger augmentation is required to validate the present findings.
India; Tribes; Sabar girls; Menarche; Body composition.
Mathematical anthropology is a well-known subject of anthropology research nowadays. Mathematical anthropology solves intriguing and significant difficulties in anthropological theory. Several publications and books have published articles or scientific papers by notable scientists on this topic. The mathematical anthropology analysis fast and improvised that particular field exclusively in the framework of kinship. Several scientists have studied mathematical analysis of genealogy, kinship terminology, and culture theory, among other topics, but “Social Anthropology in Mathematics” is a new field of social anthropology, not a replacement for mathematical anthropology. It uses some simple mathematical formulas to explain any social anthropological investigation. The study of social anthropology in mathematics requires the use of simple mathematical formulas. This is the subject of the current brief communication.
Mathematics; Anthropology; Lineage; Clan, SET theory; Culture.
In most African countries, the elderly face challenges that affect their health and wellbeing and are more pronounced because of the systemic factors of inadequate health care, food insecurity and the general care. Increasing population of the elderly persons in Uganda is raising concern than ever before. The purpose of this paper to ascertain care available to the rural elderly persons and their role as carers for their grandchildren and implications on their wellbeing.
This was a qualitative study conducted among the rural elderly aged 60 years and above in eight purposively selected district that included Lira, Nebbi, Kampala, Luwero, Pallisa, Jinja, Mbarara, and Ntungamo. The study sample consisted of 101 elderly person from whom in-depth interviews were conducted. Data was analysed using qualitative thematic content analysis.
Rural elderly in Uganda face a lot of constraints that include access to healthcare and information, poor economic status, food insecurity and poor nutrition, and poor accommodation and housing conditions. Two broader themes emerged inductively from the analysis that include care available for the rural elderly and providing care to grandchildren. These themes generated several subthemes. Taking care of grandchildren crippled the elderly and reduced the economic benefits. That said some rural elderly were happy and felt fulfilled to care of the grandchildren despite the lack of resources.
The rural elderly in Uganda are living in doleful conditions with limited care and support. They need care but are the providers of care to the grandchildren. They are frails and may not afford to provide adequate care. They care for grandchildren many of whom are orphans and vulnerable yet they themselves need care. It is important the government and the community re-enforce this care not to put strain on elderly. The rural elderly unique challenges necessitates special targeting and mobilization of resources at the household, local, district and national levels.
Grandparents; Care; Orphans; Grandchildren; Skip-generation; Uganda.
This essay has emerged through my research engagements with life history as a research method in anthropology. It is based on the life events of a woman artist. The past few decades have brought an explosion of cultural criticisms and also explorations of women’s creative expressions across cultures. Some of the queries addressed are, how do external forces shape the creativity of female artists. Also, how do creative women respond to such forces? Creative women, then, have a unique relationship to their cultural contexts, as well as to the creative genre to which they respond. This essay also delves into myths related to insanity and women. It discusses creativity, as a mode of engagement with rigid social structures.
Life history; Women; Creativity; Body psyche; Insanity; Myths; Anthropology.
Sitting height (SH), sub ischial leg length (SILL) and the sitting height/leg length ratio (SH/SILL) are useful tools for assessing human body proportions. They are often used to detect the presence of abnormal growth, especially in school-aged children.
Materials and Methods
Our cross-sectional study was conducted among 1012 preschool children aged 2 to 6-years from Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) scheme centers at Bali Gram Panchayat, Arambagh, Hooghly District, West Bengal, India. Anthropometric measurements like height, weight, SH were measured following standard protocol.
There was no age combined significant sex difference in any variable. However, age specific sex differences were there in few age groups. Highly significant (p<0.001) age variations existed in all variables. The body mass index (BMI) was significantly (p<0.01) negatively correlated with SILL (r=-0.443), SILLP (r=-0.302) and UTL (r=-0.346) in both sexes. It was significantly (p<0.01) positively associated with UTLP (r=0.302). Moreover, SILL was significantly positively correlated with UTL in both sexes (boys, r=0.821 and girls, r=0.871; p<0.01), whereas it was significantly negatively associated with UTLP (boys, r=-0.590 and girls, r=-0.552; p<0.01) in the participants.
Our results suggest that, in both sexes, there were significant age differences in SILL, SILLP, upper trunk length (UTL) and unified technology learning platform (UTLP). The BMI had significant associations with these variables in both sexes. Moreover, SILL had significant correlation with UTL and UTLP among the participants.
Sub ischial leg length; BMI; Upper trunk length; Sub ischial leg length percentage; Upper trunk length percentage.
Associate Professor Department of Anthropology University of Kansas Lawrence, KS 66045-7540, USA
Teaching Assistant Professor Department of Anthropology East Carolina University Greenville, NC 27858, USA
Professor Department of Anthropology University of Mysore Mysore, Karnataka 570006, India
Department of AnthropologyVidyasagar UniversityMidnapore, West Bengal 721102, India