volume 6, Issue 1

  • 2020, January

    review

    Lycopene: Implications for Human Health–A ReviewOpen Access

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    Abstract [+]

    Lycopene is one of the six major dietary and serum carotenoids, and a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. A large and growing body of scientific evidence supports the role of lycopene in multiple areas of health, including cancer, prostate, cardiometabolic, lung, skin, and liver health, and elucidates lycopene’s mechanisms of action. This paper provides an overview of several benefit areas, specifically prostate, testes, cardiovascular, liver and skin health.

    Keywords

    Lycopene; Carotenoids; Cardiovascular disease (CVD); Human health.


  • 2020, February

    review

    Reproductive Biotechnology Options for Improving Livestock Production: A ReviewOpen Access

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    Abstract [+]

    Reproductive biotechnology is one of the options which have a role in the improvement of livestock. It is a technology that improves livestock production by improving the reproductive insufficiency of the animal through different techniques. These are artificial insemination (AI), cloning, estrus synchronization, embryo transfer (ET), transgenesis and in vitro fertilization. These techniques are very important techniques to advance livestock production and to meet the people’s demands now-a-day. These reproductive biotechnologies have a dramatic effect on the world’s economy through the improvement of livestock genetics, preventing disease, facilitate transportation, keeping endangered animals and reducing economic loss. Artificial insemination in animals was originally developed to control the spread of disease, avoiding the transport of animals with potential pathogens to other animal units for mating and avoiding physical contact between individuals. The use of semen extenders containing antibiotics also helped to prevent the transmission of bacterial diseases. AI is broadly used in developing countries including Ethiopia. Even if reproductive biotechnologies are effective to change livestock production status of the countries, they are not applied routinely due to the presence of different challenges. Therefore, this review highlighted the major reproductive biotechnology options and their roles in the improvement of livestock production.

    Keywords

    Artificial insemination; Estrus synchronization; Embryo transfer; Livestock; Reproductive biotechnology.


  • 2020, March

    original research

    Development of Eggless Cake Using Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Protein Concentrate and its Quality AttributesOpen Access

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    Abstract [+]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this study was to explain the quality of 5%, 8%, and 12% of grass carp fish protein concentrate (FPC) supplemented cake. Proximate composition, batter rheology, texture analysis, baking loss, color evaluations, and sensory analysis were performed to explain the quality.

    Materials and Methods

    Grass carp fish of about 40 cm length and 4 kg weight, sugar, flour, vegetable oil, baking soda, and baking powder were bought from the local market in Wuxi, Jiangsu, China, while vanilla essence, hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and glycerol monostearate (GMS) were obtained from Jiangnan University Food Science Laboratory.

    Results and Discussion

    An impressive increment in the crude protein (9.10-16.75%), crude fat (10.39-12.30%), and ash (1.22-1.35%) were noticed for FPC supplemented cake. With the increase in FPC quantity, the viscosity of batters lightly decreased (106.41-106.00) and specific gravity increased from 0.9619-1.0073. A non-uniform change was observed in hardness but gumminess and chewiness were increased while cohesiveness and elasticity were found to be decreased. Baking loss (CL) was increased (10.28-11.13) with an increasing level of FPC. The brightness (L*), yellowness (b*) and redness (a*) of FPC 5%, 8%, and 12% fortified cake was recorded as 59.56-57.15, 29.23-31.24, and 10.85-12.75, respectively.

    Conclusion

    The cakes prepared with 12% FPC have high nutritional value but showed low sensory attributes due to its dark color and slight fishy flavor while cakes prepared with 8% FPC supplementation revealed the best results for all sensory attributes. In short, a protein-enriched with acceptable quality and sensory attributes, the cake could be prepared by 8% FPC incorporation and eventually could assure effective utilization of fish.

    Keywords

    Grass carp fish; Cake; Fish protein; Fortification; Sensory evaluation.


  • 2020, May

    original research

    The Nutritional Composition and Health Benefits of Lincang WalnutsOpen Access

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    Abstract [+]

    Background

    Although there is considerable information on the nutritional composition of the common walnut, information on the iron walnut is scarce.

    Aim

    To analyze the nutritional composition of Lincang walnuts (which belong to the species Juglans sigillata L., also known as the iron walnut) and if they confer any advantages over Xinjiang or Californian walnuts (both Juglans regia L. or common walnut).

    Results

    Nutrients of particular nutritional significance in Lincang walnuts (both regular and old tree) were protein (5.9 and 5.6 g/30 g serve), dietary fiber (6.5 and 6.7 g/30 g serve), vitamin B6 (0.87 and 0.93 mg/30 g serve), copper (1.65 and 1.63 mg/30 g serve), magnesium (158 and 142 g/30 g serve), manganese (7.33 and 8.41 mg/30 g serve) and phosphorus (437 and 427 g/30 g serve). Despite a high fat content, the fatty acids profile was predominantly polyunsaturated and monounsaturated types. The Lincang walnuts were similar in macronutrient composition to the Xinjiang and Californian-sourced samples, but the Lincang ones were higher in some of the B vitamins (niacin, thiamin, and vitamin B6) and minerals (manganese and to a lesser extent copper, iron, phosphorus, and potassium). The serotonin concentration in Lincang walnuts (7.6 and 7.2 mg/30 g serve) was over double that found in Californian walnuts (2.9 mg/30 g serve) and higher than Xinjiang walnuts (5.5 mg/30 g serve).

    Conclusion

    The nutrients present in Lincang walnuts confer a range of well-established health benefits. One area of particular interest is the role that walnuts may play in brain function owing to the combination of nutrients and phytochemicals present. In addition to direct consumption of walnuts, there are many options for the development of functional food products, including walnuts as ingredients, to promote regular consumption of walnuts for improvement of health.

    Keywords

    Walnuts; Juglans sigillata; Juglans regia; Nutrients; Brain health; Vitamin; Mineral; Fatty acid; Serotonin.


  • 2020, June

    original research

    Determination of Aflatoxin in Maize Produced in Two Regions of TogoOpen Access

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    Objective

    Some species of fungi produce toxins that can contaminate many food products. For example, toxigenic strains of the Ascomycetes Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus are responsible for the secretion of aflatoxin in maize. In this work, we proposed to study the aflatoxin contamination of maize produced in two regions of Togo (region Maritime and region des Plateaux) and intended for human consumption.

    Materials and Methods

    For this purpose, 50 maize samples (25 from each of the two regions) were randomly collected in Togo and subjected to AflaTest analysis, using a VICAM.

    Results

    Our results showed that all 50 maize samples tested were contaminated with aflatoxin. However, maize from region des Plateaux showed a higher-level of contamination with aflatoxin levels ranging from 0.17 to 1600 ppb, compared to 1.4 to 450 ppb for region Maritime.

    Conclusion

    Such levels often far exceed established reference standards, raising the crucial issue of the consumption habits of exposed populations in relation to food safety.

    Keywords

    Maize; Aflatoxin; Aspergillus; Togo.