Volume 5, Issue 3
Physico-Chemical, Surface and Thermal Properties of Date Palm Pollen as a Novel Nutritive Ingredient
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Date palm pollen (DPP) is a natural product well-known in folk medicine in the Arab world. It is used to improve the fertility of human beings and studies have tested this activity on rabbits and rats. In the region of Sfax from Tunisia, a huge quantity of DPP could be discarded. Taking into account of the richness of this typical product of different components and of the trend of producing food supplements that could be sold at medium price comparing with the existing product, DPP was analyzed on the basis of physical and chemical properties in order to promote its use as a techno-functional ingredient in the agri-food and pharmaceutical field.
X-ray diffraction showed that DPP is characterized by an amorphous structure which leads to better techno-functional properties while stored in a water-air-tight container. Findings proved that DPP is capable to reduce the surface tension. Collected data from thermal analysis proved that DPP is thermally stable during storage and in different food systems.
The present study demonstrated that DPP could be used in the agri-food and pharmaceutical field. The obtained results help to define the suitable storage conditions of DPP and to predict its behavior when used as an ingredient. DPP can be used as a whole in food formulations or after extracting protein which is the main responsible agent for surfactant property. DPP proteins might be used as a food supplement in commercial sports nutrition products that can be sold at medium prices compared to some existing products.
Date palm pollen; Physico-chemical; Morphology; Surface; Thermal.
Product Development and Quality Evaluation of Biscuit and Ready-to-Eat Snack from Cowpea-wheat Flour Blends
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The research was conducted with the aim to develop biscuit and ready-to-eat snack product from cowpea flour incorporated with wheat flour.
The wheat and cowpea flour blends were prepared in five blending ratios including B1 (90:10), B2 (40:60), B3 (65:35), B4 (78:22), and B5 (53:47); respectively. The D-optimal mixture design software was used for flour blend formulation. Biscuit and extrudate products from cowpea and wheat blends were analyzed. Quality characteristics parameter used for value-added products includes physical, functional, proximate, mineral and microbial quality. Furthermore, bioactive components and sensory quality evaluation were also investigated. The biscuit samples were prepared at a baking temperature of 205 °C for 10-minutes holding time. The extrudate samples were also manufactured at feed moisture (18 and 21%), barrel temperature (100, 110 and 120 °C) and screw speed (175 and 220 rpm).
The result for crude protein analysis of biscuit (B3) and extrudate (Ex-3) samples was revealed that 15.972±0.125, and 15.915±0.251; respectively. The result for microbial quality analysis of biscuit (B3) and extrudate (Ex-3) samples was also shown as aerobic bacteria count of 44×10-5, 42×10-5 and yeast and mold (un-detected); respectively. The highest overall sensory evaluation of biscuit (B3) and extrudate (Ex-3) samples score were found 7.6 and 7.14; respectively.
Based on quality evaluation parameters, 35% cowpea flour with 65% of wheat flour blending ratio reveled sensor acceptable for biscuit production and manufacturing of ready-to-eat snack.
Biscuit; Cowpea; D-optimal mixture; Extrudate products; Wheat.
Therapeutic Value of Garlic (Allium sativum): A Review
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Garlic (Allium sativum) is a source of medicine in many ways in human beings in routine life as well as in animals and its leaves, flowers, and cloves have been used in traditional medicine for a long time. Research in recent decades has shown widespread pharmacological and therapeutic effects of A. sativum and its organosulfur compounds especially allicin. The most important chemical constituents of this plant are organosulfur compounds such as allicin, diallyl disulphide, S-allylcysteine, and diallyl trisulfide. These chemicals were used for the treatment of inflammation, cancer, blood pressure, atherosclerosis, and hyperlipidemia as praised by several authors. Additionally, extracts of garlic have been used to treat various diseases and have shown anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anticoagulative and antioxidant effects. However, few adverse effects have been found with garlic are nausea and vomiting when high quantity consumed. To review the therapeutic values of garlic and its importance in human and veterinary practices. Garlic is safe and rich sources of biologically active compounds with low toxicity. Further studies are needed to confirm the safety and quality of the plants to be used by clinicians as therapeutic agents.
Allium sativum; Therapeutic values; Antibacterial; Antifungal; Antiviral; Anticancer; Anticoagulative; Antioxidant;