Volume 5, Issue 2

  • 2019, June

    review

    Influence of Heat Treatment and Microfiltration on the Milk Proteins PropertiesOpen Access

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    Abstract [+]

    Heat treatments are the established food technology for commercial processing of milk. However, degradation of valuable nutrients in milk (as proteins) and its sensory characteristics occur during these processes due to substantial heat exposure. The most important reactions that occur during milk heat treatment are the whey proteins denaturation, its interactions with the casein
    micelles and aggregation/dissociation of the casein micelles. Microfiltration represents an emerging food processing technology allowing gentle milk preservation at lower temperatures for similar, or better, nutritive value, microbial removal, and shelf stability. Thus, the aim of this work is to review the existing studies on the effects of microfiltration on milk proteins by comparing with the effects of heating treatments.


  • 2019, June

    original research

    Demonstration of Technologies and Training of Growers for Handling and Value Addition of Fruits and Vegetables in Gilgit-BaltistanOpen Access

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    The present activity was conducted to execute fruit handling, processing, preservation, dehydration and value addition trainings in Gilgit-Baltistan, to control wastages/losses of fruits and vegetable which is above 60% of total production.

    To prepare fruit pulp for fruit preservation using potassium metabisulphite (K2O5S2). To develop household level methods for development of value added products like fruit jam, tomato paste, mix vegetable pickle and dehydrated apricot.

    The research work for method development was carried out at Pakistan Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (PCSIR) Skardu, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. Methods were developed with recommended dosages of chemical preservatives. A total of two days training courses were conducted focusing fruit handling, processing, preservation, dehydration and value addition of fruits and vegetables at 4 different locations in 4 districts of Gilgit-Baltistan (Skardu, Diamer, Hunza and Shigar).

    The research work for method development was carried out at Pakistan Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (PCSIR) Skardu, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. Methods were developed with recommended dosages of chemical preservatives. A total of two days training courses were conducted focusing fruit handling, processing, preservation, dehydration and value addition of fruits and vegetables at 4 different locations in 4 districts of Gilgit-Baltistan (Skardu, Diamer, Hunza and Shigar).

    The basic objectives of training were to control wastages/losses of fruits, income generation of fruit growers through sale of fruit, value added products and to contribute to ensure food security issue in Gilgit-Baltistan.


  • 2019, July

    original research

    Contamination Status of Water, Fish and Vegetable Samples Collected from a Heavy Industrial Area and Possible Health Risk AssessmentOpen Access

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    Abstract [+]

    Aim
    The present study was conducted to extract information about heavy metal pollution in water of Karnaphuli river and to assess the risk to public health occurred from consumption of heavy metal contaminated foodstuff like fish and vegetables collected from the adjacent area of Karnaphuli river which receives a huge amount of industrial and domestic wastes from kalurghat heavy industrial area, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    Methods
    Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometer (Model: Epsilon 5) was used as major analytical technique for determining elemental concentration. For assessing toxicity level of analyzed foodstuffs and associate health risk problem some indices like metal pollution index (MPI), health risk index (HRI) and hazard index (HI) were also estimated.
    Results
    The mean value of physicochemical properties like pouvoir hydrogène (pH), electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solid (TDS), salinity of river water were found 6.8, 745.5 μS/cm, 458.2 mg/L, 747.4 μS respectively showing that those values are much lower than the Department of Environment (DoE) of Bangladesh suggestive value, indicating safe for irrigation but EC and salinity are higher than the DoE suggestive value for drinking water. In water, the mean concentration of heavy metals in Karnaphuli river was found in the sequence of Fe>K>Cr>Mn>Zn>Cu>As=Ni=Hg>Pb. Chromium, Manganese, Iron, Zinc, and Mercury concentrations are higher than World Health Organization (WHO) standard 2011, United States Environmental Protection Agency
    (USEPA) 2009 and Bangladesh Standard for drinking water but other elements are within the safe limit. All metal concentrations in water are below the Bangladesh Standard for Irrigation except Iron (Fe). The decreasing trend of heavy metals (mean) in all the vegetable was Fe>Zn>Cu>Cr>Ni>Pb>Co and for all fish was Fe>Mn>Zn>Cr>Ca>Se>Co>Cu>K. Metal pollution index (MPI) for fish and vegetable is high enough to cause any detrimental effect on human. Estimated daily intake (EDI) value for fish followed a decreasing sequence Fe>Mn>Zn>Cr>Cu>Ni=As>Pb and for vegetable samples Fe>Zn>Cu>Mn>Cr>Ni>Pb>As respectively. Health risk assessment (HRI), and hazard index (HI) value are less than one for fish but HI value is greater than one for most of the vegetable samples analysed.
    Conclusion
    From the overall study it can be concluded that the mean value of physicochemical parameters (pH, EC, TDS, salinity) in river water were much lower than the DoE of Bangladesh suggestive value, indicating safe for irrigation but not safe for drinking. Fishes are safer for human consumption than vegetables collected from that particular area and hence, suggested to consume those vegetables at lower amount in the diet to reduce any detrimental effect.
    Keywords
    Health risk index (HRI); Hazard index (HI); Metal pollution index (MPI); Toxic effect; Vegetables; Fishes.