In many countries, rice contributes to health by supplying dietary energy, proteins and fat. Many different species of rice have been developed in Japan and other rice producing countries. Some varieties are expected to prevent various diseases, or to be used for dietary therapy. The health effects of brown rice are empirically well known, and accumulating evidence about the physiological and pharmacological activity of rice bran strongly supports the use of brown rice in the dietary therapy. These could be categorized in the new concept, “medical rice”. For example: medical rice for diabetes (glycemic index<55), medical rice for chronic kidney disease (CKD) (protein<1/20), medical rice for mental health (high gamma-aminobutylic acid or γ-aminobutylic acid (GABA), gamma oryzanol (γ-oryzanol) and/or ferulic acid), and medical rice for cancer prevention (high antioxidant capacity). Organic cultivation is necessary to avoid toxic substances from fertilizers and insecticides. In response to the enormous increase of medical costs in many countries, encouragement of healthy longevity by changes of dietary habits is mandatory. Functional food labeling has started in 2015 in Japan, so the proper food labeling of medical rice could help people who want to control and/or improve their health status.
Aim: Pesticide residue dissipation in chickpea legume under simulated storage conditions as well as effect of processing techniques was investigated. Further, the impact of pesticide residues was studied on micronutrient bioavailability.
Background: Food quality and safety have assumed an important dimension in current scenario. It is important to investigate the pesticide residues present in the grains from storage in warehouses and their dissipation through processing.
Methods: Pesticide residues in chickpea grains were analyzed through gas chromatography (GC) while simulated gastric digestion was undertaken for bioavailability.
Results: The dissipation pattern of chlorpyrifos and its metabolites under grain storage conditions for 5 months revealed that the residues exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL) values right from the beginning of the storage. The effect of processing techniques showed that soaking and germination eliminated almost all the pesticide residues. However, the build-up of toxic metabolite oxon during pressure cooking and microwave (MW) cooking is a matter of great concern because of its greater toxicity than parent pesticide molecule. The impact of pesticide residues on the bioavailability of micronutrients showed that chlorpyrifos did not impact the bioavailability of Fe and Zn but significantly reduced the bioavailability of Cu and Mn at the highest spiking level (25 ppm) of chlorpyrifos.
Conclusion: Storage of grains leads to accumulation of residues which are eliminated by household processing techniques. Pesticide residues impact micronutrient bioavailability in grains.
It is widely known that athletes used to rely on training and good nutrition to provide maximum results. But now to maintain a competitive edge, athletes are switching to nutraceuticals. They are dietary supplements that provide health benefits. Nutraceuticals and dietary supplements are now commonly used to enhance and improve the health and performance of athletes. This has triggered the sale of nutraceuticals in the market and stores and gyms are selling hundreds of different supplements. These nutritional supplements usually claim to improve strength, performance and stamina, help build lean muscle, and help to burn excess fat. There are many health and nutritional supplements available in the market for the athletes. It is a difficult choice to choose the suitable and appropriate nutraceutical for oneself. The present article will introduce the athlete to a variety of different nutritional health supplements available in the market including fat burners, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), numerous essential fatty acids (EFAs), creatine, whey proteins, glutamine, Tribulusterrestris, beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), methoxyIsoflavone, and Cordyceps.
Consumers of products preferably demand minimally processed products that do not contain chemical preservatives and maintain health benefits. These encourage the use of dietary fiber (DF) to combat some metabolic disorders like diabetes and other immunological compromisings. This study indicates the potential of DF to satisfy the lowering of estimated glycemic index from improved white bread. The sources were selected from crude fiber composition of different cereals and fruits. Fruits of ripen avocado mesocarps and baobab pulps composed of total pectin composition 13%, 30% respectively and selected as good sources. Analysis of total dietary fiber (TDF), insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and soluble dietary fiber (SDF) were carried out according to the manufacturer megazyme total dietary fiber kit protocol and methods described in Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). Improvement of DF was observed by enhancing on white breads (WB) based on the daily requirement of soluble fibers (pectin) composition, i.e. 6 g/day. Samples of avocado improved bread (AVB) and baobab improved bread (ADB) were made by mixing in proportion of wheat flour to avocado/baobab pulps (97:3); (94:6); (88:12). Analysis of proximate composition and in vitro estimation of hydrolysis index (HI) and glycemic index (GI) were done for products to evaluate the quality and impact on blood glucose level. Significant differences were observed for predicted GI between improved bread and controls, 82.84±0.37 (WB), 80.63±0.21 (ADB), 78.50±0.30 (AVB). As a result, the reductions in GI for the improved white breads indicate the delay in release of glucose from absorption by the cell due to the viscous nature of dietary fiber component. Thus, the improved white breads with appropriate soluble dietary fiber (pectin) content, reveals the potential for the reduction of blood glucose level and can be considered as functional foods (nutraceuticals) along with its moderate level degree of likeness or sensory acceptability. In general, the study has indicated that the soluble fibres can have a potential to reduce the postprandial glucose by delaying absorption in cells.