Volume 2, Issue 1

  • 2016, June

    original research

    Physicochemical and Organoleptic Characteristics of Dehydrated Apricots under Different Drying ConditionsOpen Access

    PDF424.50 KB 424.50 KB
    Full-Text (HTML)
    Abstract [+]

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of different drying methods on the physicochemical composition and organoleptic characteristics of dehydrated apricot fruits. The fresh apricot was dehydrated in open sun and in moveable solar drier developed by Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR) Skardu. The chemical composition showed that the fresh apricots contained moisture 83.3%, ash 0.72%, crude fat 0.03%, crude Protein 0.9%, crude fiber 1.02% and carbohydrates 14.03%. The moveable solar drier and using open sun drying substantially decreased moisture content to 14.61% and 15.7% respectively. Proportions of other components were increased, which include ash (3.51% and 3.43%), crude fat (1.99% and 1.82%), crude protein (1.0% and 0.97%), crude fiber (2.98% and 2.95%) and carbohydrates (75.91% and 75.13%). Organoleptic characteristics of open sun dried apricot has a little negative effect on over all acceptability when compared to moveable solar dehydrated apricot, however the open sun dried method was declared acceptable by the panel of judges for color, taste and overall acceptability.


  • 2016, July

    original research

    Phytoestrogens as Pharma FoodsOpen Access

    PDF538.70 KB 538.70 KB
    Full-Text (HTML)
    Abstract [+]

    Phytoestrogens are a diverse group of plant-derived compounds that structurally or functionally mimic mammalian estrogens and show potential benefits for human health. They can serve as potential alternatives to the synthetic selective estrogen receptor modulators which are currently being used in hormone replacement therapy. Estrogens play many important physiological roles in men and women. In women, life is severely affected by a variety of estrogen-related conditions such as osteoporosis, cognitive and cardiovascular disease, increased risk of breast cancer and other symptoms that decrease the overall quality of life. Phytoestrogens are effective in maintaining bone mineral density, prevent bone loss, and help in the prevention and/or treatment of such health related problems. They can be classified as flavonoids, isoflavonoids, coumestans, stilbenes, lignans and terpenoids. The main isoflavones, genistein and daidzein found in soybean, can exist as glucosides or as aglycones, and are readily hydrolyzed in the gut to their aglycones. The aglycones are easily transported across intestinal epithelial cells. Terpenoids (ferutinine, tschimgine, and tschimganidine) found in the Umbelliferae family have estrogenic activities. The main dietary source of phytoestrogenic stilbenes is trans-resveratrol from red wine and peanuts. Plant-derived foods may be an adequate source for a variety of phytoestrogens capable of producing a range of pharmacological effects and protection from various life threatening diseases. This article provides the comprehensive information about the main groups of phytoestrogens, their food as well as herbal or botanical sources, potential health benefits and probable health hazards.


  • 2016, July

    original research

    Crambe (Crambe Hispanica Subsp. Abyssinica) Grains Mycobiota and Natural Occurrence of Aflatoxins, Ochratoxin A, Fumonisin B1 and ZearalenoneOpen Access

    PDF485.04 KB 485.04 KB
    Full-Text (HTML)
    Abstract [+]

    Crambe grains are a new feed with high concentrations of proteins and fibers. As there is no control during the pre-harvesting or post-harvesting stages of production other grains, crambe may be contaminated by fungi. Fungal overgrowth may lead to mycotoxins production and nutritional properties decrease of the grains. The aim of this study was to analyze the occurrence of fungi and mycotoxins according to pre-harvesting management. Fungal concentration was higher than that recommended by international regulations (3.4×106 to 1.3×104 CFU.g-1), suggesting that management in pre-harvesting stages of crambe grains production may expose the animals that will feed on these grains to the risk of contamination by fungal toxins. More studies are required about quality of crambe grains, because may be strongly affected by the exposition to variable environmental conditions. But, considering low mycotoxin incidence and levels founded, the crambe proves to be a safe food to be exploited for animal nutrition.