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The purpose of this study was to investigate the different combination of testcrosses for morphological and yield relating traits and to investigate general combining ability of the inbred lines.
Materials and Methods
This research was conducted at The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan during 2016. Line x-tester analysis was used to test general combining ability (GCA) effects of 24 S4 lines of sweet corn. Alpha lattice design with two replications and two checks was used during the experiment. Research data were recorded on various flowering, morphological and yield parameters.
Highly significant variations were recorded among the testcrosses for the studied traits except anthesis silking interval (ASI), 100-kernel weight. Minimum days to tasseling (48-days) and silking (53.5-days) was exhibited by pop-syn-swt (9-4)×synthetic sweet. GCA effect was -2.14 for tasseling and -2.00 for silking. Maximum value (3.5-days) for ASI was recorded for Pop-synswt 1(8-3)×synthetic sweet, while GCA effect for ASI was -0.71. Lowest plant height (129.8 cm) was recorded for pop-syn-swt 1(3-3)×synthetic sweet, while GCA effect for plant height was observed to be -14.79. Maximum cob length (16.6 cm) was revealed by pop-syn-swt 1(12-2)×synthetic sweet. For cob length GCA effect of 1.01 was recorded. Maximum 100 kernel weight (31.3 g) was estimated for pop-syn-swt 1(2-1)×synthetic sweet. GCA effect of 1.85 was recorded for 100-kernel weight. Highest mean (7143.9 kg ha-1) for grain yield was recorded for pop-syn-swt 1(9-4)×synthetic sweet. GCA effect for grain yield was found to be 1370.93.
Generally a low GCA value, either positive or negative indicates that the mean of a parent does not largely vary from its offsprings. In contrast, high GCA value suggests that parent is either superior or inferior to the general mean and it has high heritability and less environmental effects. Based on the findings in this research, the above mentioned testcrosses can be included in future sweet corn breeding programs where early flowering and yield attributes is desired.
Sweet corn; General combining ability; Inbred lines; Line by tester; Yield; Flowering.
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is rising globally and even more in low and middle-income countries such as Nigeria. Optimal management of the disease is important to improve survival and prevent or delay its complications. Lifestyle management is a standard universal approach in optimizing the care given to diabetic patients. Dietary management is the central link in lifestyle modifications of individuals living with diabetes. Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is a systematic therapeutic approach of assessing the nutritional needs of an individual, determining nutritional goals, counselling the clients on how to achieve the goals, prescribing and monitoring meal plans to achieve the goals. It is evidence-based, effective and highly recommended. All carers of the diabetes patient, including the health workers and the family members of the patients, need to have basic understanding of medical nutrition therapy but the efforts should be coordinated by licensed dietitians. There are evidences that adherence to prescribed calories is effective in the control of cardiovascular risk factors such as blood glucose, weight, lipid profile and blood pressure. However, prescription of calories should be based on thoughtful consideration of the nutritional needs, weight goal, personal preferences and tastes and cultural practices of individuals living with diabetes mellitus. Food pyramids give a graphical illustration on the recommended classes and servings of food. Six to eleven servings per day of carbohydrates, 3-5 servings per day of vegetables, 2-4 servings per day of fruit, 2-3 servings per day of dairy products and 2-3 servings per day of fish are the recommended proportions of the different classes of foods for an adult on an average of 2000 calories. Carbohydrate counting, taken with appropriate insulin dosing and physical activity, has been demonstrated to be effective in optimizing the glycaemic control of patients on multiple daily insulin injections. There are challenges in doing this in Nigeria due to lack of food labels. The caloric contents of common Nigerian foods are highlighted so as to help in achieving dietary goals.
Diabetes care; Dietary approach; Carbohydrate counting; Caloric content of Nigerian foods.
Lycopene is one of the six major dietary and serum carotenoids, and a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. A large and growing body of scientific evidence supports the role of lycopene in multiple areas of health, including cancer, prostate, cardiometabolic, lung, skin, and liver health, and elucidates lycopene’s mechanisms of action. This paper provides an overview of several benefit areas, specifically prostate, testes, cardiovascular, liver and skin health.
Lycopene; Carotenoids; Cardiovascular disease (CVD); Human health.
Reproductive biotechnology is one of the options which have a role in the improvement of livestock. It is a technology that improves livestock production by improving the reproductive insufficiency of the animal through different techniques. These are artificial insemination (AI), cloning, estrus synchronization, embryo transfer (ET), transgenesis and in vitro fertilization. These techniques are very important techniques to advance livestock production and to meet the people’s demands now-a-day. These reproductive biotechnologies have a dramatic effect on the world’s economy through the improvement of livestock genetics, preventing disease, facilitate transportation, keeping endangered animals and reducing economic loss. Artificial insemination in animals was originally developed to control the spread of disease, avoiding the transport of animals with potential pathogens to other animal units for mating and avoiding physical contact between individuals. The use of semen extenders containing antibiotics also helped to prevent the transmission of bacterial diseases. AI is broadly used in developing countries including Ethiopia. Even if reproductive biotechnologies are effective to change livestock production status of the countries, they are not applied routinely due to the presence of different challenges. Therefore, this review highlighted the major reproductive biotechnology options and their roles in the improvement of livestock production.
Artificial insemination; Estrus synchronization; Embryo transfer; Livestock; Reproductive biotechnology.
The purpose of this study was to explain the quality of 5%, 8%, and 12% of grass carp fish protein concentrate (FPC) supplemented cake. Proximate composition, batter rheology, texture analysis, baking loss, color evaluations, and sensory analysis were performed to explain the quality.
Grass carp fish of about 40 cm length and 4 kg weight, sugar, flour, vegetable oil, baking soda, and baking powder were bought from the local market in Wuxi, Jiangsu, China, while vanilla essence, hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and glycerol monostearate (GMS) were obtained from Jiangnan University Food Science Laboratory.
Results and Discussion
An impressive increment in the crude protein (9.10-16.75%), crude fat (10.39-12.30%), and ash (1.22-1.35%) were noticed for FPC supplemented cake. With the increase in FPC quantity, the viscosity of batters lightly decreased (106.41-106.00) and specific gravity increased from 0.9619-1.0073. A non-uniform change was observed in hardness but gumminess and chewiness were increased while cohesiveness and elasticity were found to be decreased. Baking loss (CL) was increased (10.28-11.13) with an increasing level of FPC. The brightness (L*), yellowness (b*) and redness (a*) of FPC 5%, 8%, and 12% fortified cake was recorded as 59.56-57.15, 29.23-31.24, and 10.85-12.75, respectively.
The cakes prepared with 12% FPC have high nutritional value but showed low sensory attributes due to its dark color and slight fishy flavor while cakes prepared with 8% FPC supplementation revealed the best results for all sensory attributes. In short, a protein-enriched with acceptable quality and sensory attributes, the cake could be prepared by 8% FPC incorporation and eventually could assure effective utilization of fish.
Grass carp fish; Cake; Fish protein; Fortification; Sensory evaluation.
Although there is considerable information on the nutritional composition of the common walnut, information on the iron walnut is scarce.
To analyze the nutritional composition of Lincang walnuts (which belong to the species Juglans sigillata L., also known as the iron walnut) and if they confer any advantages over Xinjiang or Californian walnuts (both Juglans regia L. or common walnut).
Nutrients of particular nutritional significance in Lincang walnuts (both regular and old tree) were protein (5.9 and 5.6 g/30 g serve), dietary fiber (6.5 and 6.7 g/30 g serve), vitamin B6 (0.87 and 0.93 mg/30 g serve), copper (1.65 and 1.63 mg/30 g serve), magnesium (158 and 142 g/30 g serve), manganese (7.33 and 8.41 mg/30 g serve) and phosphorus (437 and 427 g/30 g serve). Despite a high fat content, the fatty acids profile was predominantly polyunsaturated and monounsaturated types. The Lincang walnuts were similar in macronutrient composition to the Xinjiang and Californian-sourced samples, but the Lincang ones were higher in some of the B vitamins (niacin, thiamin, and vitamin B6) and minerals (manganese and to a lesser extent copper, iron, phosphorus, and potassium). The serotonin concentration in Lincang walnuts (7.6 and 7.2 mg/30 g serve) was over double that found in Californian walnuts (2.9 mg/30 g serve) and higher than Xinjiang walnuts (5.5 mg/30 g serve).
The nutrients present in Lincang walnuts confer a range of well-established health benefits. One area of particular interest is the role that walnuts may play in brain function owing to the combination of nutrients and phytochemicals present. In addition to direct consumption of walnuts, there are many options for the development of functional food products, including walnuts as ingredients, to promote regular consumption of walnuts for improvement of health.
Walnuts; Juglans sigillata; Juglans regia; Nutrients; Brain health; Vitamin; Mineral; Fatty acid; Serotonin.
Some species of fungi produce toxins that can contaminate many food products. For example, toxigenic strains of the Ascomycetes Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus are responsible for the secretion of aflatoxin in maize. In this work, we proposed to study the aflatoxin contamination of maize produced in two regions of Togo (region Maritime and region des Plateaux) and intended for human consumption.
For this purpose, 50 maize samples (25 from each of the two regions) were randomly collected in Togo and subjected to AflaTest analysis, using a VICAM.
Our results showed that all 50 maize samples tested were contaminated with aflatoxin. However, maize from region des Plateaux showed a higher-level of contamination with aflatoxin levels ranging from 0.17 to 1600 ppb, compared to 1.4 to 450 ppb for region Maritime.
Such levels often far exceed established reference standards, raising the crucial issue of the consumption habits of exposed populations in relation to food safety.
Maize; Aflatoxin; Aspergillus; Togo.
Date palm pollen (DPP) is a natural product well-known in folk medicine in the Arab world. It is used to improve the fertility of human beings and studies have tested this activity on rabbits and rats. In the region of Sfax from Tunisia, a huge quantity of DPP could be discarded. Taking into account of the richness of this typical product of different components and of the trend of producing food supplements that could be sold at medium price comparing with the existing product, DPP was analyzed on the basis of physical and chemical properties in order to promote its use as a techno-functional ingredient in the agri-food and pharmaceutical field.
X-ray diffraction showed that DPP is characterized by an amorphous structure which leads to better techno-functional properties while stored in a water-air-tight container. Findings proved that DPP is capable to reduce the surface tension. Collected data from thermal analysis proved that DPP is thermally stable during storage and in different food systems.
The present study demonstrated that DPP could be used in the agri-food and pharmaceutical field. The obtained results help to define the suitable storage conditions of DPP and to predict its behavior when used as an ingredient. DPP can be used as a whole in food formulations or after extracting protein which is the main responsible agent for surfactant property. DPP proteins might be used as a food supplement in commercial sports nutrition products that can be sold at medium prices compared to some existing products.
Date palm pollen; Physico-chemical; Morphology; Surface; Thermal.
The research was conducted with the aim to develop biscuit and ready-to-eat snack product from cowpea flour incorporated with wheat flour.
The wheat and cowpea flour blends were prepared in five blending ratios including B1 (90:10), B2 (40:60), B3 (65:35), B4 (78:22), and B5 (53:47); respectively. The D-optimal mixture design software was used for flour blend formulation. Biscuit and extrudate products from cowpea and wheat blends were analyzed. Quality characteristics parameter used for value-added products includes physical, functional, proximate, mineral and microbial quality. Furthermore, bioactive components and sensory quality evaluation were also investigated. The biscuit samples were prepared at a baking temperature of 205 °C for 10-minutes holding time. The extrudate samples were also manufactured at feed moisture (18 and 21%), barrel temperature (100, 110 and 120 °C) and screw speed (175 and 220 rpm).
The result for crude protein analysis of biscuit (B3) and extrudate (Ex-3) samples was revealed that 15.972±0.125, and 15.915±0.251; respectively. The result for microbial quality analysis of biscuit (B3) and extrudate (Ex-3) samples was also shown as aerobic bacteria count of 44×10-5, 42×10-5 and yeast and mold (un-detected); respectively. The highest overall sensory evaluation of biscuit (B3) and extrudate (Ex-3) samples score were found 7.6 and 7.14; respectively.
Based on quality evaluation parameters, 35% cowpea flour with 65% of wheat flour blending ratio reveled sensor acceptable for biscuit production and manufacturing of ready-to-eat snack.
Biscuit; Cowpea; D-optimal mixture; Extrudate products; Wheat.
Garlic (Allium sativum) is a source of medicine in many ways in human beings in routine life as well as in animals and its leaves, flowers, and cloves have been used in traditional medicine for a long time. Research in recent decades has shown widespread pharmacological and therapeutic effects of A. sativum and its organosulfur compounds especially allicin. The most important chemical constituents of this plant are organosulfur compounds such as allicin, diallyl disulphide, S-allylcysteine, and diallyl trisulfide. These chemicals were used for the treatment of inflammation, cancer, blood pressure, atherosclerosis, and hyperlipidemia as praised by several authors. Additionally, extracts of garlic have been used to treat various diseases and have shown anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anticoagulative and antioxidant effects. However, few adverse effects have been found with garlic are nausea and vomiting when high quantity consumed. To review the therapeutic values of garlic and its importance in human and veterinary practices. Garlic is safe and rich sources of biologically active compounds with low toxicity. Further studies are needed to confirm the safety and quality of the plants to be used by clinicians as therapeutic agents.
Allium sativum; Therapeutic values; Antibacterial; Antifungal; Antiviral; Anticancer; Anticoagulative; Antioxidant;
World Organization of Natural Medicine
CEO and Founder of International Academy of Wellness (IAW)
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Sprim Advanced Life Science
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Department of Nutrition and Physiology
College of Life Sciences
Jamal Abdul Nasser Street, Kuwait