Associate Editor

William J. Keenan, MD

Department of Pediatrics & OB/GYN
Saint Louis University School of Medicine
St. Louis, MO, USA



MD-Loyola University, Chicago, (1964)


• Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, Santa Clara, CA (1964-1965)
• Boston City Hospital, Boston University, Pediatrics (1965-1966)
• Cincinnati Childrens Medical Center, Pediatrics (1966-1967)


Dr. James Sutherland, Perinatal Physiology, University of Cincinnati (1967-1969)


• Liaison Cincinnati Health Department and University of Cincinnati (1969-1973)
• Assistant, Associate and Professor of Pediatrics and Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Cincinnati (1969-1980)
• Professor of Pediatrics and Obstetrics and Gynecology, Saint Louis University (1980-present)
• Director of the Division of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Saint Louis University (1980-2009)


• Director, Perinatal Outreach, Saint Louis University (1980-present)
• Director, Southern Illinois Perinatal Education and Quality Improvement Program (1983-present)
• Director, Office of International Affairs, American Academy of Pediatrics (2007-2010)
• North American Representative, International Pediatrics Association (Chair, Child Health Advocacy Committee) (2007-2010)
• Executive Director, International Pediatric Association (2010-present)
• Steering Committee Member-China Ministry of Health, China Perinatal Association, American Academy of Pediatrics, Fountain of Life program (interdisciplinary neonatal resuscitation training in 10 and now30 provinces) (2004-present)
• Steering Committee Member, The First Golden Minute program, Ministry of Health, Government of India, Indian Association of Pediatrics, American Academy of Pediatrics (2009-present)

Research Interest

His research interests include: Global Pediatrics, Neonatal Health, Perinatal Educational Innovations.

Scientific Activities


• (1970) Midwest Society for Pediatric Research
• (1974) American Academy of Pediatrics
• (1976) The Irish and American Pediatric Society
• (1980) Missouri Chapter of American Academy of Pediatrics
• (1982) American Society for Nutritional Sciences
• (1983) American Federation for Clinical Research
• (1983) American Association for the Advancement of Science
• (1986) Missouri Perinatal Association Illinois Perinatal Association American Institute of Nutrition
• (1994) The American Pediatric Society
• (1996)American Federation for Medical Research
• (2010) Global Health Council


• (1979) Outstanding Faculty - Teaching Award, Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio
• (1983) Faculty Recognition Award, Department of Pediatrics-St. Louis University
• (1996) Neonatal Education Award - Perinatal Section of the American Academy of Pediatrics
• (2005) American Heart Association Giant of Resuscitation


• (1989) Genesis Award-March of Dimes St. Louis Area Chapter - For Outstanding Service to Women and Children
• (1993) Pediatrician of the Year - St. Louis Pediatric Society
• (2000) Archbishop John L. May Leadership Award for Distinguished Health Care Ministry
• (2000) Hall of Honor-Childrens Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio
• (2004) St. Lukes Award -Cardinal Glennon Childrens Hospital
• (2005) Giant of Resuscitation-American Heart Association
• (2010) Helping Babies Breathe-American Society of Association Executives Summit Award (ASAE). S. Niermeyer, N. Singhal, G. Little, W. Keenan
• (2010) Virginia Apgar Award-Recognition of Outstanding Contributions to Perinatal Medicine, AAP-SOPP
• (2010) Summit Award-Helping Babies Breathe, American Society for Association Executives (AAP)
• (2010) Special Recognition by the Peoples Republic of China Ministry of Health for contributions to the China Neonatal Resuscitation Program (2004-2010)
• (2011) USAID Global Development Alliance Excellence Award to the Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) Program with Laerdal Medical, AAP, IAP, NICHD, Save the Children
• (2012) Ambassadors Award - Cardinal Glennon Childrens Medical Center - selection parents
• (2013) The Dr. Corinne Walentik Provider Champion Award by the Maternal, Child & Family Health Coalition (MCFHC) • 2013 The Dr. Corinne Walentik Provider Champion Award by the Maternal, Child & Family Health Coalition (MCFHC) • 2013 The Dr. Corinne Walentik Provider Champion Award by the Maternal, Child & Family Health Coalition (MCFHC) by parents. • (2013) The Dr. Corinne Walentik Provider Champion Award by the Maternal, Child & Family Health Coalition (MCFHC) • (2013) The Dr. Corinne Walentik Provider Champion Award by the Maternal, Child & Family Health Coalition (MCFHC)



1. Vollman RW, Keenan WJ, Eraklis AJ. Chylous ascites. N Engl J Med. 1966; 275: 857-877.
2. Sutherland WM, Keenan WJ, Light IJ. Aspects of relationships between drugs and human infants. Proc. 6th Int Congr Chemotherapy. 1970; 2: 768-755.
3. Besch M, Perlstein PH, Edwards NK, Keenan WJ, Sutherland JM. The transparent baby bag a shield against heat loss. N Engl J Med. 1971; 284: 121-124. doi: 10.1056/NEJM197101212840302
4. Keenan WJ, Jewett T, Glueck HI. Role of feeding and vitamin K in hypoprothrombinemia of the newborn. Am J Dis Child. 1971; 121: 271-277.
5. White M, Keenan WJ. Recognition and management of hypoglycemia in the newborn infant. Nursing Clinics of North America. 1971; 6(1): 67-79.
6. Keenan WJ, Perlstein PH, Light IJ, Sutherland JM. Kernicterus in small sick premature infants receiving phototherapy. Pediatrics. 1972; 49: 652-655.
7. Light IJ, Keenan WJ, Sutherland JM. Maternal intravenous glucose administration as a cause of hypoglycemia in the infant of the diabetic mother. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1972; 113: 345-350.
8. Butcher RE, Vorhees CV, Kindt CW, Keenan WJ. An experimental evaluation of phototherapy for hyperbilirubinemia in the Gunn rat. Am J Dis Child. 1972; 123: 576-578. doi: 10.1001/archpedi.1972.02110120100011
9. Keenan WJ, Light IJ, Sutherland JM. Effects of exogenous epinephrine on glucose and insulin levels in infants of diabetic mothers. Biol Neonate. 1972; 21: 44-53.
10. Brown DR, Keenan WJ. Pneumoperitoneum without gastrointestinal perforation in a neonate. J Pediatr. 1974; 85: 377.
11. Tsang RC, Chen IW, Friedman MA, et al. Parathyroid function in infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatr. 1975; 86: 399.
12. Koffler H, Keenan WJ, Sutherland JM. Hydronencephaly followed elevated hematocrit values in a newly born infant. Pediatrics. 1975; 543: 770-773.
13. Keenan WJ, Altschulter G. Massive pulmonary hemorrhage. J Pediatr. 1975; 86: 466-471.
14. Courpotin C, Keenan WJ, Sutherland JM, Gerbeaux J. Etude de la consommationd’oxygenschex les enfantsnes de meres diabetiques. Le Poumonet Le Couer. 1985; 31(4): 205-209.
15. Fenton L, Beresford ME, Keenan WJ. The determination of aspirin levels in the presence of hyperbilirubinemia. Pediatrics. 1977; 59: 55-57.
16. Keenan WJ, Steichen JJ, Mahmood K, Altschulter G. Placental pathology compared with clinical outcome: a retrospective blinded review. Am J Dis Child. 1977; 131: 1224.
17. Kotagal U, Kleinman L, Keenan WJ, Reuter J. Cardiovascular effects of polycythemia and hypervolemia in newborn dogs. Pediatr Res. 1978.
18. Thelin JW, Thelin SJ, Keith RW, et al. Effect of middle-ear effusion on hearing and language in high-risk infants. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology. 1979; 1: 125-136.
19. Walsh JK, Farrell MK, Wolske SK, Lucus M, Keenan WJ, Kramer M. Gastroesphageal reflux in infants: Relation to apnea. Journal of Pediatrics. 1981; 99: 197-201.
20. Moore SE, Walsh JK, Keenan WJ, Wolske SK, Farrell MK, Kramer M. Periodic breathing in infants with histories of prolonged apnea. Am J Dis Child. 1981; 135: 1029-1031. Also appears in J de Pediatrie. 1983; 1: 111-114.
21. Patel DM, Donovan EF, Keenan WJ. Transient respiratory difficulty following cesarean delivery. Biol Neonate. 1983; 43: 146-151.
22. Grim PF, DeMello D, Keenan WJ. Disseminated zygomycosis in a newborn. Pediatric Infectious Disease. 1984; 3: 61-64.
23. Grim PF, Keenan WJ. Teaching umbilical vessel catheterization in a newborn. Perinatology-Neonatology. 1984; 13.
24. Keenan WJ, Kovak KK, Sutherland JM, Bryla D. Mortality and morbidity of exchange transfusion. Pediatrics. 1985; 75: 417-421.
25. Gartner L, Lee K, Keenan WJ. Effect of phototherapy on the albumin binding of bilirubin. Controlled trial of phototherapy for hyperbilirubinemia. Pediatrics. 1985; 75: 401-406.
26. Devaskar UP, Devaskar S, Keenan WJ. Acute bronchospasm resembling status asthmaticus during the neonatal period. Critical Care Medicine. 1986; 14: 472-475.
27. Naqvi SH, Keenan WJ, Reichley RM, Fortune KP. Vancomycin pharmacokinetics in small, seriously ill infants. Am J Dis Child. 1986; 140: 107-110.
28. Buchino JJ, Keenan WJ, Pietsch JB, Danis R, Schweiss JF. Malpositioning in the ET tube in infants with tracheoesophageal fistula. Journal of Pediatrics. 1986, 109(3): 524-552.
29. Weber TR, Pennington DG, Conners R, et al. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for newborn respiratory failure. Ann Thor Surg. 1986; 42: 529-535.
30. Keenan WJ. Committee on the Fetus and Newborn, American Academy of Pediatrics. Use and abuse of the Apgar score. Pediatrics. 1986; 78: 1148-1149.
31. Buchino JJ, Keenan WJ, Algren JT, Bove KE. Familial desquamative interstitial pneumonitis occurring in infants. Am J Med Genetics. 1987; 3: 285-291.
32. Toce SS, Keenan WJ. Enteral feeding in very low birth weight infants: A comparison of two nasogastric methods. Am J Dis Child. 1987; 141: 439-444. Also appears in J de Pediatrie. 1987; 6: 298-304.
33. Sadiq HF, Devaskar S, Keenan WJ, Weber TR. Broviac catheterization in low birth weight infants: Incidence and treatment of associated complications. Critical Care Medicine. 1987; 15: 47-50.
34. Weber TR, Conners R, Pennington DG, Keenan WJ, Kotagal S, Lewis JL. Neonatal diaphragmatic hernia: An improving outlook with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Arch Surg. 1987; 122: 615-618. doi: 10.1001/archsurg.1987.01400170121018
35. Toce SS, Keenan WJ. Congenital echovirus 11 pneumonia in association with pulmonary hypertension. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1988; 7: 360-362.
36. Scheidt PC, Bryla DA, Nelson KB, Hirtz DG, Hoffman HJ. Principal Investigators: Phototherapy for Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia: Six-Year Follow up of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Clinical Trial. Pediatrics. 1990; 85: 455-463.
37. Weber TR, Conners RH, Tracy TF, Bailey PV, Stephens C, Keenan WJ. Prognostic determinants in extracorporeal oxygenation for newborn respiratory failure. Annals of Thor Surg. 1990; 50: 720-723.
38. Whitley R, et al. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease Collaborative Antiviral Study Group. New Engl J Med. 1991; 324: 444-449.
39. Whitley R, et al. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease Collaborative Antiviral Study Group. New Engl J Med. 1991; 324: 450-454.
40. Keenan WJ, Raye J, Bloom R, et al. Interim training guidelines for Neonatal Resuscitation. Currents in Emergency Cardiac Care. 1992; 3: 4.
41. Keenan WJ. Emergency Cardiac Care Committee & Subcommittee Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiac Care. Contributor to Neonatal Resuscitation: J Amer Med Assoc. 1992; 268: 2276-2281.
42. Keenan WJ. Emergency Cardiac Care Committee & Subcommittee Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiac Care. Contributor to - Ethical Considerations in Resuscitation. J Am Med Assoc. 1992; 268: 2282-2288.
43. Toce SS, Keenan WJ. Lipid intolerance in newborns is associated with hepatic dysfunction but not infection. Arch Pediatr Adol Med. 1995; 149: 1249-1253.
44. Niermeyer S, Kattwinkel J, Van Reempts P, et al. International guidelines for Neonatal Resuscitation: An excerpt from the Guidelines 2000 for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care: International Consensus on Science. Pediatrics. 2000; 106(3): e29. doi: 10.1542/peds.106.3.e29
45. Singh B, Sadiq HF, Noguchi A, Keenan WJ. Efficacy of albuterol inhalation in treatment of hyperkalemia in premature neonates. J Pediatr. 2002; 141: 16-20. doi:
46. Ali A, Walentik C, Mantych GJ, Sadiq HF, Keenan WJ, Noguchi A. Iatrogenic acute hypermagnesemia after total parenteral nutrition infusion mimicking septic shock syndrome: Two case reports. Pediatrics. 2003; 113: e70-e72.
47. Keenan WJ. Recommendations for management of the child born through meconium-stained amniotic fluid. Pediatrics. 2004; 113: 133-134.
48. Fiore A, Jureidini S, Keenan W, Johnson RG. Cardiac Surgery in the Newborn: Improved Results in the Current Era. Missouri Medicine. 2004; 101(6): 489-493.
49. Keenan WJ. Neonatal Resuscitation: What Role for Volume Expansion?. Pediatrics. 2005; 115(4): 1072-1073. doi: 10.1542/peds.2004-2870
50. Keenan WJ. Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity Cooperative Group: The Incidence and Course of Retinopathy of Prematurity: Findings from the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity Study. Pediatrics. 2005; 116(1): 15-23.
51. Brooker RW, Keenan WJ. Inguinal Hernia: Relationship to respiratory disease in prematurity. J Pediatr Surg. 2006; 41(11): 1818-1821. doi:
52. Brooker RW, Keenan WJ. Catheter related bloodstream infection following PICC removal in preterm infants. Journal of Perinatology. 2007; 27: 171-174. doi: 10.1038/
53. Brooker RW, Booth GR, DeMello DE, Keenan WJ. Unsuspected transaction of lung by pigtail catheter in a premature infant. Journal of Perinatology. 2007; 27: 190-192. doi: 10.1038/
54. Scalzo AJ, Lehman-Huskamp KL, Sinks GA, Keenan WJ. Disaster Preparedness and Toxic Exposures in Children. Clin Ped Emerg Med. 2008; 9: 47-60. doi: 10.1016/j.cpem.2007.12.005
55. Stanton B, Huang CC, Armstrong RW, et al. Global Health Training for Pediatric Residents. Pediatric Annals. 2008; 37: 12: 1-6.
56. Koenig JM, Keenan WJ. Group B Streptococcus and early-onset sepsis in the era of maternal prophylaxis. Pediatr Clin N Am. 2009; 56: 689-708. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2009.04.003
57. Wall SN, Lee A, Niermeyer S, et al. IJGO Supplement for Saving Newborn Lives. Intrapartum-related neonatal deaths: Evidence for Action - PAPER 3. Neonatal resuscitation in low resource settings; what, who, how and overcoming challenges to scale up. Intl J OB GYN. 2009; 107(1): S47-S64.
58. Keenan WJ. Early Treatment ROP Cooperative Group: Final Visual Acuity Results in the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity Study. Arch Ophthal. 2010; 128(6): 663-671.
59. Little G, Niermeyer S, Singhal N, Lawn J, Keenan W. Neonatal Resuscitation: A Global Challenge. Pediatrics. 2010; 126: e1259-e1260.
60. Wall SN, Lee A, Carlo W, et al. Reducing Intrapartum-Related Neonatal Deaths in Low- and Middle-Income Countries - What Works? Seminars in Perinatology. 2010; 34: 395-407. doi: 10.1053/j.semperi.2010.09.009
61. Lee AC, Cousens S, Wall SN, et al. Neonatal resuscitation and immediate newborn assessment and stimulation for the prevention of neonatal deaths: a systemic review, meta-analysis and Delphi estimation of mortality effect. BMC Public Health. 2011; 13(11(3)): S12. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-S3-S12
62. Little GA, Keenan WJ, Niermeyer S, Singhal N, Lawn JE. Neonatal Nursing and Helping Babies Breathe: An Effective Intervention to Decrease Global Neonatal Mortality. Pediatrics. 2011; 126(5): e1259-e1260. doi: 10.1053/j.nainr.2011.04.007
63. Singhal N, Lockyer J, Fidler H, et al. Helping Babies Breathe: Global neonatal resuscitation program development and formative educational evaluation. Resuscitation. 2012; 83: 90-96. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2011.07.010
64. Tao XU, Ye WH, Niermeyer S, et al. Impact of a nationwide training program for neonatal resuscitation in China. Chinese Medical Journal. 2012; 125(8): 1448-1456.
65. Bhutta ZA, Cabral S, Chan W, Keenan WJ. Reducing maternal, newborn, and infant mortality globally: An integrated action agenda. Intl J Gynecol Obstet. 2012; 1: S13-S17. doi:
66. Keenan WJ. Childrens Rights and Community Well Being. Pediatrics. 2013; 131(3).
67. Goudar SS, Somannavar MS, Clark R, et al. Stillbirth and Newborn Mortality in India After Helping Babies Breathe Training. Pediatrics. 2013; 131(2): e344-e352. doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-2112
68. Bhutta ZA, Zipursky A, Wazny K, et al. Setting priorities for development of emerging interventions against childhood diarrhea. J Glob Health. 2013; 3(1): 010302.
69. Zipursky A, Wazny K, Black R, et al. Global action plan for childhood diarrheoa: Developing research priorities: Report from a Workshop of the Programme for Global Pediatric Research. J Glob Health. 2013; 3(1): 010406. doi: 10.7189/jogh.03.010406
70. Yoshida S, Rudan I, Lawn JE, et al. neonatal health research priority setting group Newborn health research priorities beyond 2015. Lancet. 2014; 384(9938): e27-e29.
71. Little GA, Keenan WJ, Singhal N, Niermeyer S. International Perspectives: Helping Babies Breathe: Evolution of a Global Neonatal Resuscitation Program for Resource-Limited Areas. Neo reviews. 2014; 15: e369.