Associate Editor


Muralidhar Padala, PhD

Director and Assistant Professor
Structural Heart Research & Innovation Lab
Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Emory University
380B, Northyards Blvd
Atlanta, GA 30313, USA

Biography

EMPLOYMENT:

• Aug 2014 to present: Program Faculty, Biomedical Engineering, Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
• May 2010 to present: Assistant Professor, Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Director, Structural Heart Disease Research & Innovation Lab, Emory University School of Medicine
• Jan 2003 - Apr2004: Intern, Hypersonic Propulsion Division, Indian Defense Research and Development Organization, Hyderabad, India


EDUCATION:

• Feb 2012 - Dec2012 Postdoctoral research fellowship [Funded by a competitive career development award from Leducq Fondation in Paris], Heart Science Center, Imperial College London, UK
Thesis: Molecular mechanisms of mitral valve prolapsed Aug 2004 May
• 2010: Ph.D. in Bioengineering [Funded by a fellowship from the American Heart Assoc], Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, USA
Thesis: Mitral valve mechanics after surgical repair
• Aug 2006 - May 2008: M.S. in Mechanical Engineering, Woodruff Department of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, USA
Major: Mechanics Minor: Biomaterials
• May 2000 - May2004: B.E in Mechanical Engineering, Osmania University, Hyderabad, India, GPA: 4.0/4.0, Highest honors
Thesis: Computational modeling of nonpremixed combustion in supersonic rocket engines

Research Interest

His research interests include:
Structural heart and valve disease, involving lesions that impact the structure, function and biology of the heart valves, and the myocardium are the focus of my research. His interest is in understanding the mechanisms underlying the initiation and progression of disease in these structures, their biological remodeling from initiation of the structural lesion to complete failure, and in developing therapies specific to these lesions to control their progression. Their ultimate goal is to improve our knowledge of disease initiation and propagation, and innovate new therapeutic strategies and devices to treat patients.
(i) Functional mitral regurgitation Mitral regurgitation developing in patients after a heart attack, impairs cardiac function and increases cardiac morbidity and mortality. His laboratory was investigating the pathogenic mechanisms of functional mitral regurgitation, and developing novel surgical and transcatheter devices to address this challenging valvular lesion.
(ii) Mitral valve prolapse Mitral valve prolapse occurs among 23% of all adult Americans, which when left untreated causes increased risk of sudden cardiac death. His laboratory was investigating the pathogenic mechanisms underlying mitral valve prolapse, and the biomechanical parameters that cause progressive valve deterioration in this disease state.
(iii) Timing of mitral valve repair and its impact on left ventricular remodeling Optimal timing of mitral valve repair, whether functional mitral regurgitation and due to mitral valve prolapse, is necessary to rescue the ventricle from failing. His laboratory is investigating the time course of left ventricular remodeling in mitral valve disease, and for markers to identify the optimal timing of mitral valve repair to achieve best rescue of the ventricle.
(iv) TypeB aortic dissection TypeB aortic dissection is a structural tear of the aorta that develops at regions of atherosclerotic plaque, and propogates through the entire distal aorta, and is associated with up to 25% in hospital mortality. His laboratory was investigating the impact of typeB aortic dissection on the aortic hemodynamics, and the impact of endovascular aortic repair on hemodynamics.

Scientific Activities

HONORS AND AWARDS

• 2014 American Heart Association Scientist Development Grant
• 2014 Final 10, Med Tech Idol Competition, IN3 Dublin
• 2012 Emory University Innovation of the Year Award
• 2011 Leducq Fondation Career Development Award
• 2011 1st place, SEBIO Business Plan Competition, Duke University
• 2009 1st place, Ventura Business Plan Competition, India
• 2009 Social Relevance Award, Ventura Business Plan Competition
• 2009 Gandy Diaz Teaching Fellowship
• 2008 American Heart Association Pre Doctoral Fellowship Grant
• 2004 Highest honors in the graduating class

Publications

1. Kalra K, Wang Q, McIver BM, et al. Temporal changes in interpapillary muscle dynamics as an active indicator of mitral valve and left ventricular interaction in ischemic mitral regurgitation in humans. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2014; 64(18): 1867-1879. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2014.07.988
2. Miragoli M, Yacoub MH, ElHamamsy I, et al. Side specific mechanical properties of valve endothelial cells. American Journal of Physiology Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 2014; 307(1): H1524. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00228.2013
3. Padala M, Sweet M, Hooson S, Thourani VH, Yoganathan AP. Hemodynamic Comparison of Mitral Valve Repair: techniques for a flail anterior leaflet. Journal of Heart Valve Disease. 2014; 23(2): 171-176.
4. Padala M, Gyoneva LI, Thourani VH, Yoganathan AP. Impact of mitral valve geometry on hemodynamic efficacy of surgical repair in secondary mitral regurgitation. Journal of Heart Valve Disease. 2014; 23(1): 79-87. doi:
5. Lam A, ClementGuinaudeau S, Padala M, Eisner R, Thourani VH, Oshinski JO. Post Surgical Hemodynamics of Aortic Valve Bypass Operation Evaluated with Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Journal of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 2014; 40(4): 899-905. doi: 10.1002/jmri.24423.
6. Thourani VH, Gunter RL, Hurst S, et al. Postoperative Warfarin Following Mitral Valve Repair or Bioprosthetic Valve Replacement. Journal of Heart Valve Disease. 2013; 22(5): 716-723. doi:
7. Padala M, Cardinau B, Gyoneva LI, Thourani VH, Yoganathan AP. Comparison of artificial neochordae and native chordal transfer in the repair of a flail posterior mitral leaflet: an experimental study. Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 2013; 95(2):629-633. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2012.09.055
8. Yamauchi H, Vasilyev NV, Marx GR, et al. Right Ventricular Papillary Muscle Approximation as a Novel Technique of Valve Repair for Functional Tricuspid Regurgitation in an Ex Vivo Porcine Model. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 2012; 144(1):235-242. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2012.01.028
9. Padala M, Jimenez JH, Yoganathan AP, Chin A, Thourani VH. Transapical Beating Heart Cardioscopy Technique for OffPump Visualization of Heart Valves. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 2012; 144(1): 2314. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2011.11.038
10. Balachandran K, Hussain S, Yap CH, Padala M, Chester AH, Yoganathan AP. Elevated Cyclic Stretch and Serotonin Result in Degenerative Aortic Valve Remodeling via a Mechanosensitive 5HT2A Receptor Dependent Pathway. Cardiovascular Pathology. 2012; 21(3): 206-213 doi: 10.1016/j.carpath.2011.07.005
11. Padala M, Gyoneva LI, Yoganathan AP. Effect of anterior strut chordal transection on the force distribution on the marginal chordae of the mitral valve. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 2012; 144(3): 624-633. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2011.10.032
12. Weiler M, Yap CH, Balachandran K, Padala M, Yoganathan AP. Regional analysis of dynamic deformation characteristics of native aortic valve leaflets. Journal of Biomechanics. 2011; 44(8): 145965 doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2011.03.017
13. Padala M, Thourani VH, Keeling BW. Innovations in Heart Valve Therapies, Invited review article. Circulation Journal, Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society, Circulation Journal. 2011; 75(5): 102841 doi:
14. Delmo Walter EM, Vasilyev NV, Sill B, et al. Creation of a tricuspid valve regurgitation model from tricuspid annular dilatation using the cardioport video assisted imaging system. Journal of Heart Valve Disease. 2011; 20: 184-188 doi:
15. Padala M, Sarin EL, Babaliaros V, Block P, Thourani VH. Engineering Review of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Technologies. Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology. 2010; 1(1): 77-87. doi: 10.1007/s13239-010-0008-4
16. Padala M, He Z, Sacks MS, Liou SW, Jimenez JH, Yoganathan AP. Mechanics of the mitral valve strut chordae insertion region. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. 2010; 132(8): 081004. doi: 10.1115/1.4001682
17. Padala M, Hutchison R, Croft LR, et al. Saddle shape of the mitral annulus reduces systolic strains on the P2 segment of the posterior mitral leaflet. Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 2009; 88(5):1499-1504. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2009.06.042
18. Padala M, Powell SN, Croft LR, Thourani VH, Yoganathan AP, Adams DH. Mitral Valve Hemodynamics after repair of acute posterior leaflet prolapse: quadrangular resection versus triangular resection versus neochordoplasty. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 2009 ; 138(2): 309-315. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2009.01.031
19. Erek E, Padala M, Pekkan K, et al. Mitral Web - A New Concept for Mitral Valve Repair: improved engineering design and invitro studies. Journal of Heart Valve Disease. 2009; 18(3): 3006. doi:
20. Padala M, Vasilyev N, Owen Jr JW, et al. Cleft Closure and Undersizing Annuloplasty Improve Mitral Repair in Atrioventricular Canal Defects. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 2008; 136(5): 124-139. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2008.05.043
21. Sucosky P, Padala M, Elhamalli A, Balachandran K, Jo H, Yoganathan AP. Design of an Exvivo Culture System to Investigate the Effects of Shear Stress on Cardiovascular Tissue. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. 2008; 130(3): 035001. doi: 10.1115/1.2907753.
22. Jimenez JH, Liou SW, Padala M, et al. A saddle shaped annulus reduces strains in the central region of the anterior mitral valve leaflet. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 2007; 134(6): 15628. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2007.08.037